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24 Cards in this Set

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Polyatomic molecule
a molecule that carries a net electric charge
a central atom surrounded by two substituents is ______
Linear and has 180* angles.
a central atom surrounded by three substituents is _____
triangular and has 120* angles.
a central atom surrounded by four substituents is _____
tetrahedral and has 190.5* angles.
When protons equal electrons in the nucleus its charge is ___
electrically neutral.
What happens when an atom loses or gains one or more electrons?
It takes on a net electric charge.
Ion
an atom having a net electric charge.
Ionic bonds exist between____
metals and nonmetals.
Covalent bond
occurs between nonmetals only,
two electrons are shared,
goal is that every atom have a closed shell electron configuration.
Polar covalent bonds
result from an uneven sharing of electrons in non-identical atoms. Determined by the atoms electronegativity.
For all ionic compounds, (+) and (-) charges must balance.
Electronegativity is > for elements in the upper right of the periodic table and < for those in the lower left.
When two atoms have the same electronegativity, no dipole is formed and is a nonpolar bond.
How polar a bond is depends on the difference between the electronegativity of the two atoms-the greater the difference the more polar the bond.
Dipole
a separation of charge that occurs because of differences in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms. i.e. H :F
Polar bond
a chemical bond having a dipole.
If an atom appears multiple times in a chemical formula it is probably on the outside of the molecule.
H can make only 1 bond so will always be on the outside. Same w/any atom that can make only 1 bond.
Atoms combine until all atoms in the molecule have a valency of 8 e's
If an atom only appears once in a chemical formula it probably is at the middle of the molecule.
A chemical bond that has a dipole.
polar bond
The ability of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons to itself when bonded to another atom.
electronegativity.
A group of atoms held tightly together by covalent bonds.
covalent compound.
A chemical bond in which atoms are held together by their mutual attraction for two or more electrons they share.
covalent bond.
A chemical bond in which an attractive electric force holds ions of opposite charge together.
ionic bond.
An electrically charged particle created when an atom either loses or gains one or more electrons.
ion
Two paired valence electrons that don't participate in a chemical bond and yet influence the shape of the molecule.
nonbonding pair
a shorthand notation of the shell model of the atom in which valence electrons are shown around an atomic symbol
electron-dot structure