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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
any relative permanent change in behavior due to experience
learning that involves association between environmental stimuli and responses
Classical Conditioning
type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
Unconditioned response (UR)
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
Spontaneous Recovery
reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.
Higher Order Conditioning
a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
(a) A dog salivating because of a light
Stimulus generalization
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. Little Albert
Stimulus discrimination
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
Garcia effect
long lasting effects. ie: Yagermister
Operant Conditioning
behavior is dependent on its consequences
Law of Effect
a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened.
(a) Cat in a puzzle box
Neutral consequence
not more/less likely to see behavior patterns change
anything that makes a response more likely to occur
anything whihc will make a response less likely to occur
Primary reinforcers
events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
(i) In humans: food, water, warmth, sex
Secondary reinforcers
events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
(i) In humans: good grades, money, attention, praise, applause
occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make the response
Positive punishment
something unpleasant occurs: mouth washing, spank
Negative punishment
somethign is removes: tv, car keys
Continuous reinforcement
occurs every instance of a designated response is reinforced.
intermittent/partial reinforcement
occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
(1) Intermittent reinforcement leaves longer lasting effects than continuous.
ratio schedules
deliver reinforcement after certain fixed number of responses
fixed ratio schedules
reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
(a) Salesperson receives bonus for every fourth set of knives sold
variable ratio schedules
reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
interval schedules
reinforcement after a certain amount of time has passed and desired behavior has occured
fixed interval
reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
variable interval
the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed.
consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
(i) Leading an animal to do a trick by reward when they get close
linking different shapings. ie: a pig pushing a shopping cart
Observational learning
occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
capacity to retain and retrieve info
flashbulb memories
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events
requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any clues
requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options
requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before
levels of processing
deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes
sensory memory
preserves information in its original sensory from for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
short term memory
a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds
magic number
number of items we are able to hold in our stm. 7 +-2
may be lowered to 4
a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
long term memory
an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time
procedural memory
knowing how
declarative memory
handles factual information
semantic memories
contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned
episodic memories
made up of chronological recollections of personal experiences
prospective memory
remembering to perform actions in the future
retrospective memory
remembering events from the past or previously learned information
systematic strategies for remember info
Dual-Coding Theory
memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall
ineffective encoding
we dont remember it in the first place
decay theories
fade w/time
new memories for old
most recent version is saved
retroactive interference
occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information
proactive interference
occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.
motivated forgetting
painful memories blocked form consciousness
cue dependent forgetting
forget because haven't figured out what is needed to help remember
memory defiects
retrograde amnesia
the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia
anterograde amnesia
the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia
post traumatic amnesia
memory loss following an accident
childhood amnesia
unable to remember events from first years of life
clinical condition in which individual loses cognative ability to function to the degree in which it impeeds normal activity and social relationships
symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages
smallest speech unit in a language that can be distinguished perceptually
initial phonemes
"c"at or "b"at
middle phonemes
b"i"t or b"a"t
smallest unit of meaning in a language
(1) Un-friend-ly
area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations
system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
gleason study
language rules are generative
occur when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply.
language acquisition device
humans possess an inborm language mechanice device
chi hui
surface structure
particular words used
deep structure
notion of nouns, verbs, commands
expressive language
ability to produce language
receptive language
ability to comprehend, process.. language
Learning theory
language is based on modeling imitations, exposure and reinforcement
interactionist theory of language dev.
both bio and experience make contributions to language dev
extension of perception and memory
concepts and categories
classified on basis of properties
mental rep. of category
recognizing object as a member of a group
based on similarties of models
process by which we generate and evulate arguments
step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem
inductive reasoning
reason from spec. observation
deductive reasoning
reason from assumptions
how questions are ask change response
mental set
exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past
functional fixedness
tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
compensatory decision models
attractive attributes compensate for unattractiveness
a guiding principle or “rule of thumb” used in solving problems or making decisions
combines verbal ability, problem solving skills and ability to adapt and learn form experiences
self-fulfilling prophecy
if we expect somthing to happen in a certan way our expectancies will make it occur case study
mental retardation
iq lower than 70 before age 18
iq greater than 130
involves goal-directed behavior
evolution theory
social need to affilate, share, rejoice, provide protection...
state of physiological equilibrium or stability
energy is necessary for maintenance and growth
hypothalamus (lateral)
lesion on lateral: lean
hypothalamus (ventromedial
lesion on ventromedial: velobious
body weight higher than 20-30% than norms
three reaons for obsity in us
1. accessability
2. greater portion sie
3. great sedentary lifestyle (videogames)
preferce for those of same or opp sex
kinsey survey
identified sexual behavior preferences
extra credit
gay youth are higher for suicide
4 sexual response cycle
1. excitement
2. plateau
3. orgasm
4. resolution
achievement motivation
need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence
cognitive, physiological and beh components
I feel afraid because I tremble
Cannon-Bard Theory
The dog makes me tremble and feel afraid
Schacter's two factory theory
I label my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous