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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy
study of structure
Gross Anatomy
macroscopic examination of large strucutre; Can be seen with the naked eye
Microscopic Anatomy
examination of structures using magnification
Physiology
study of function
Cellular Physiology
Study of cell function
Systemic Physiology
Study of of how systems work
Pathological
Study of disease/dysfunction
The anatomy determines the...
function
Characteristics of life
Organization
Responsiveness
Growth
Meatbolism
Characteristics of Life:
Organization
billions of cells, highly organized
Characteristics of Life:
Responsiveness
detect and respond to chenges in the internal or external envrionment
Characteristics of Life:
Growth
increase in the number or size of cells
Characteristics of Life:
Metabolism
the sum of all chemical processes in your body
Catabolism
break down of large complex organic molecules into simple molecules; BREAKING DOWN
Anabolism
synthesis of complex organic compound from simpler precursors
Levels of organization
molecule-cells-tissues-organs-organ systems - organism
Molecular Level
(Chemical Level)
atoms and molecule
Cellular Level
smallest living unity of the body
Tissue Level
group of cells, perform the same functions
Four basic types of tissues:
epithelium, connective, muscle, nerve
organ level
group of tissue types that perfrom the same function
Organ Systems
collection of related organs with a common function
Organism Level
individual living being
Homeostatic Regulation
maintaining a stable internal environment within physiological limits; vital - if upset could result in illness or death
Intrinsic Regualtion
(Autoregulation)
occurs when cells, tissues, or organs, adjust activities automatically in response to environmental stimuli
Extrinsic Regulation
activities of the nervous system and endocrine system adjust
3 Part of a control mechanism
receptor, control center, efector
receptor
sensor; detect stimuli
control center
intergration center, receives, processes information, sends out commands
effector
responds to the command of the control center, responds to stimuli
Negative Feedback
-most feedback systmes are negative
-stimulus initiaties actions that are reverse or reduce stimuli
-used for conditions that need frequent adjustment
-quick
Postive Feedback
response enhances original stimuli
- seldom encountered in daily life
-more long term
Element
-basic substance not broken fown by ordinary means
- all atoms with the same atomic number
molecule
-a chemical structure containing two or more atoms that are held together by a chemical bond
-atoms held togeth by bonds
Ion
-charged atom
-an aton or molecule bearing a positive or negative charge due to the donation or acceptance of an electron
Cation
when an ion gains an electron and becomes negative
ionic bond
bond between ions
Compounds
2 or more atoms that are chemicaly combined
Electron on the outermost shell ...
determine its radioactivity
reactive atoms for _______ ___ with each other
chemical bonds
isotopes
atoms of the same element but differ in the number of neutrons, some can be radioactive (can be traced)
atoms
smalles unit of funtional matter that retains the property of the element
electrolyte
soluble inorganic molecule whose ions are present in body fluid.
acid
a compound whose dissociation in solution releases a hydrogen ion and an anion
Significant elements in A&P
O, C, H, N, Ca, P
2/3 of body wieght is _____
water
Properties of water
Solubility, reactivity, high heat capacity, lubrication (reduces friction)
Properties of water
SOLUBILITY
many molecule dissolve in water to form a solution
Solvent
medium in which atoms, molecule, and ions are dispersed
solute
the dispersed substance
Properties of water
Reactivity
all chemical reaction in the body take place in a watery environment
Properties of water
HIgh Heat Capacity
-ability to absorb and contain heat
-takes high heat to change liquid to a vapor
-great range of temperature from freezing to boiling
-carries away a lot of heat when going from a liquid to a gas
pH scale
measures degrees of acidity and alkalinity
pH below 7
H > OH
Acid
pH equals 7
H = OH
neutral
pH is above 7
H < OH
base
Acids
-a compound whose dissociation in solution releases a hydrogen ion and an anion
-an acidic solution has a pH below 7.0 and contains a excess of hydrogen ions.
-release H+ when dissolved in H2O
-if H+ exceed OH-
Base
-releases OH- when dissolved in H2O
-if OH- exceed H+
Blood's pH is ___
7.4
Buffer
keeps pH within normal limits
Inorganic molecules
-do not contain both C and H
Organic Molecule
-Contain both C & H
-Covalently bonded with other elements
Four Classes of organic Molecules
Functional Groups
small pre-assembled clusters that are added to a carbon framework to form the monomer
monomers
subunits tha tmake up an organic molecule
polymer
monomer subunits that are bonded together to form large polymers
Dehydration synthesis
used to link monomer to monomer to form a polymer; loss of water
hydolysis
used to break apart the polymer into monomers; addition of water
Carbohydrate
-an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-vary in shape (rings or chains)
Carbohydrate: functions
-short term energy source
-cell identification
monosaccharides and disaccharides
-monomers
-"simple sugar"
-mono-glucose, fructose, galactose
di- sucrose, maltose, lactose
polysacharides
-polymer
-"complex sugar"
-starch, cellulose, glycogen, and proteoglycans
polysacharides
starch
only source is from plants
polysacharides
cellulose
insoluble fiber (can't digest)
found in cell walls
polysacharides
glycogen
animal starch - chain of glucose molecules
stored in our muscle and liver
excess is turned into fat
increase storage by excerising
polysacharides
proteoglycans
part of the cell membrane
Special Properties of Carboydrates
hydrophillic (water soluble)
Lipids
basic chemical structures
-monomer - fatty acids, glycerol
-polymer - oils, fats, waxes
-C, H, with less O
Lipids
functions
-long term energy source
-protect organs
-cell membrane structure
-signaling communicatios 9can from hormones
Fatty Acids
-monomer used to build larger lipids
-long carbon-hydrogen chains
-contain carboxyl and methyl groups
-saturated vs. unsaturated…bonding patterns
Saturated Fatty Acids
-converted by the liver into cholesterol (clogs arteries)
-single bonded
-mostly from anilmal(exception – coconut oil and palm oil
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
-double bonded
-ex – olive oil, canola oil
monounsaturated acids
decrease the bad cholesterol without decreasing the good cholesterol
poly unsaturated acids
decreases both the good and bad cholesterol
eicosanoids
-prostaglandins are the main type
-prostaglandins are releases by damaged cell membenes that activate pain receptors
glycerides
-combination of glycerol plus a fatty acid chain
-mono glycerides = glycerol + 1 fatty acid chain (circulates in blood)
-triglycerides = glycerol + 3 fatty acid chain (stored in fat calls)
-functions – energy source, insulation, cushioning
-fat is a great insulator
-be able to identify glycerol (sugar alcohol
steroids
-large molecules with4 ring carbon frame
-cholesterol is synthesized and modified within the body
-steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone, cortisol)
-Functions- Cholesterol will turn into steroid hormones, sex hormones, vitamin d (needs sunshine), bile)
- 4 rings = cholesterol, estrogen, or testosterone
Phospholipids
-phosphate group attaches to 2 fatty acid to a non lipid group
-hydrophilic “head” end
-hydrophobic “tail” end
-phospholipids form the bilyer of all cell membranes
Special Properties
Lipids
-hydrophobic (most)
-energy rich – 9cal/gram
-12-24% of body weight
Locations of Lipids
Subcutaneous layer – triglycorides
Endocrine glands – steroids
Cell membrane – phospholipids prostaglandins
Proteins
amino acid structure
-monomer - amino acid 9there are 20 in the body)
-peptide bond - links amino acids together
SPecial properties of Protiens
-denaturation
denaturations
-disrupts the shape of the protein, changes its characteristics
Agents that will denature a protein
heat, alcohol, acids, and heavy metals
harmful affect of denaturation
fever, poison
useful affects of denaturation
cooking an egg, stomach acid
Proteins
7 functional categories
support-structural
movement-contractile
transport-hemoglobins
buffering-regulate pH
metabolic regulation - enzymes
coordination-hormones
defense- antibodies
Levels of orgnanization
1 linear - single polypeptide
2 helix(hormone) or Pleated sheets (silk)
3 coiling, folding(insulin - disulfide bonds
4 globular - hemoglobin
Enzyme
protein which catalyze reactions that sustain life (speed up reactions)
enzymes are specifc
Substrate
molecule upon which an enzyme acts : reactant
coenzyme
organic – vitamin makes enzymes shape
cofactor
inorganic molecule – binds to the enzyme to change the shape of the avtice site
coenzyme and cofactor are the same,but.....
one is organic and the other is inorganic
Nucleic Acids
basic chemical structure
-monomer-nucloetide
-polymer - DNA, RNA, ATP
DNA
Double Stranded
Deoyribose
RNA
single stranded
ribose
ADP
adenosine triphosphate
ATP
Adenosine diphosphate - main energy in the body
Cell Membrane
General Functions
Physical isolation
regulation
sensitivity
structural support
phospholipid bilayer
-makes up the plasma membrane – living boundary of all cells, semi permeable (regulate what enter and exits the cell)
-anything that is soluble in fat or lipids and gases pass through easily
Integral Proteins
-has a channels
-lets other things go through the membrane (water)
Cholesterol
adds to the fluidity of the membrane
Passive transport
down the concentraion gradient from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
diffusion
-simple diffusion – through the phospholipids bilayer
-facilitated diffusion – different because molecules are aided by transport proteins
-factors that influence diffusion rate:
- distance, molecular size, temperature, radient size, electrical forces
Osmosis
-diffusion of H2O only
Hypotonic
increased concentration of H2O and decreased concentration of solute on the outside of the cell - H2O enters the cell – may cause cell to burst (lysis)
Hypertonic
decreased H2O and increased solute on the outside of the cell - H2O exits the cell – causes shrinking (crenation)
Isotonic
equal concentration of solutes and solvents on both sides of the membrane
Active transport
cell uses energy (ATP) to move against the concentration gradient through transport protein
Pinocytosis
no receptors
cell drinks extracellular fluid by forming pockets
phagocytosis
active engulfing og solid object