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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

short definition?
study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and the molecular mechanisms by which those effects are produced

study of what drugs do to the body and how they do it
4 reasons why a nurse needs a basic understanding of pharmacodynamics
1. know about drug actions in order to educate patients about their medication
2. make PRN decisions
3. evaluate patients for drug responses, both beneficial and harmful
4. understand drug actions when conferring with physicians about drug therapy
maximal efficacy

indicated by?
the largest effect that a drug can produce

indicated by the height of the dose-response curve
why is it not necessarily desirable to use the drug with maximal efficacy, but select a drug with an efficacy that fits the patients needs?
despite what intuition might tell us, a drug with very high maximal efficacy is not always more desirable than a drug with lower efficacy.

We want to match the intensity of the response to the patient's needs.

indicated by?
the amount of drug we must give to elicit an effect

indicated by the relative position of the dose-response curve along the x(dose) axis
potent drug
one that produces its effects at low doses
difference between what is meant by potency of a drug and maximal efficacy
potency and efficacy are completely independent qualities. drug A can be more effective than drug B even though drug B may be more potent. Also, drugs A and B can be equally effective even though one may be more potent
drug receptor
special "chemicals" in the body that most drugs interact with to produce effects

any functional macromolecule in a cell to which a drug binds to produce its effects
general equation for the interaction between drugs and their receptors

is binding to a receptor reversible?
D[drug] +[plus] R[receptor] -><- D -[minus] R COMPLEX -> RESPONSE

binding of a drug to its receptor is almost always reversible
5 macromolecules, either receptors or target molecules, where drugs may bind to cause a response
regulatory molecules
Developing or originating within the organisms or arising from causes within the organism [to produce]
6 important properties of receptors and drug receptor interactions
1. the receptors through which drugs act are normal points of control of physiologic processes
2. under physiologic conditions, receptor function is regulated by molecules supplied by the body
3. all that drugs can do at receptors is mimic or block the action of the body's own regulatory molecules
4. because drug action is limited to mimicking or blocking the body's own regulatory molecules, drugs cannot give cells new functions. rather, drugs can only alter the rate of pre-existing processes. in other words, drugs cannot make the body do anything that it is not already capable of doing
5. drugs produce their therapeutic effects by helping the body use its pre-existing capabilities to the patient's best advantage. put another way, medications simply help the body help itself.
6. in theory, it should be possible to synthesize drugs that can alter the rate of any biologic process for which receptors exist
a simple explanation for the concept of selectivity and how it relates to potential side effects of drugs
selectivity is a highly desirable characteristic of a drug, that the more selective a drug is, the fewer side effects it will produce
2 basic principles of the simple occupancy theory of drug-receptor interaction
1. the intensity of the response to a drug is proportional to the number of receptors occupied by that drug
2. a maximal response will occur when all available receptors have been occupied
2 qualities to drugs ascribed by the modified theory
affinity and intrinsic activity

both are independent properties

drugs with high/low affinity?
the strength of the attraction between drug and its receptor

drugs with high affinity are strongly attracted to their receptors

conversely drugs with low affinity are weakly attracted
what is meant by a dose-response relationship that is graded?
as the dosage increases, the response becomes progressively greater

(the response gets more intense with increasing dosage)
True or False.

Potency is the amount of a drug that must be given to elicit an effect.
the simple occupancy theory states
1. the intensity of the response to a drug is proportional to the number of receptors occupied by that drug
2. a maximal response occurs when all available receptors have been occupied
3 examples of drugs that act as agonists
Dobutamine (Dobutrex)
Norethindrone (Errin, Ortho Micronor, Camilia, Jolivette, or Nor-Q D)
Insulin (Humulin R)
The therapeutic index is a measure of a drug's ____.