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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 Concepts underlying Grammar
1) Meaning
2) Grammatical Form
3) Grammatical Function
Grammatical Form
- refers to the shape taken by an element of the language
ie) nouns, verbs...
Six Minor Grammatical Functions
1) Proform
2) Auxiliary
3) Operator
4) Modifier
5) Determiner
6) Completer
Main Grammatical Functions (SVOCA) "Sentence Elements"
S- Subject
V- Verb
O- Object (Od- direct, Oi- indirect)
C- Complement
A- Adverbial
Ten Parts of Speech
1) Verbs
2) Nouns
3) Adjectives
4) Adverbs
5) Pronouns
6) Prepositions
7) Demonstratives
8) Conjunctions
9) Articles
10) Interjections
Interjection
Class: Open
- Expressions of emotion
- Can serve as an emphasizer
Complement
It permits the speaker to give definition or a description. In a simple sentence, it is a noun phrase or an adjective following the copular use of a verb. The verb to be is very often the verb.
ie
-The world is <a planet> (definition)
- The world is <round>. (decription)
Indirect Objects
Permits the speaker to express "who" or "what" recieved the direct object. Its is expressed by a preposition (to/for) plus a noun phrase if it follows the verb, or by the noun phrase alone if it precedes the verb.
ie-
- We gave milk <to the cat>
- We gave <the cat> some milk.
Direct Objects
Indicates "who" or "what" recieved the action found in the verb. In a simple sentence it is expressed by a noun phrase which usually comes after the verb. "Not all verbs have objects"
Object
There are two types of Objects
1. Direct Object
- Indicates "who" or "what" recieved the <action> found in the verb.
2. Indirect Object
- Permits the speaker to indicate "who" or "what" <recieved> the direct object.
Subject- Verb Agreement
AKA Concord
- The subject+verb must agree in number.
ie) singular- Singular
plural- plural
* Often the verb tends to agree with the nearest noun phrase rather than the head noun in the subject.
Subordinate Clause
Clauses that are parts of larger sentences
ie Plants grow <if the have enough water>
Coordinate Clause
A whole sentence joined by "and", "but" + "or".
ie- Roses are red <and> violets are blue.
Forms of Clauses
1) Finite- When the verb phrase has tense and a subject is present (usually).
ie. I play/ I played
2/ Non-Finite- When the verb phrase doesn't have a tense.
ie.
*base/infinitive (to play)
*-ing/ present participle (playing)
*-ed/ past participle (played)
~ non-finite clauses are dependent + can't work alone.
Functions of Clauses
1) Subject
2) Object
3) Complement
4) Adverbial
Multiword Verbs
AKA Phrasal verbs or prepositional verbs.
- Verbs that join up with a preposition or an adverb to convey a new meaning.
ie- Turn On, Carry over, Turn up...
Why multiword verbs are difficult
1) Meaning
- they change the meaning of the base verb.
- many combinations have more than one meaning
- new combinations are constantly being created
- even native speakers don't use multiwords the same way.
- they tend to be spoken language rather than written
2) Form
- multi-verbs can be made with nouns + verbs
- difficult to tell the difference between an adverbal + a multword
- Some are separable + others are not
Pragmatics
refers to unwritten rules that govern language use in sociual contexts
- Its is sometimes defined as the "WH's" of language (who, what, where, when, why)
- Emphasizes presenting language in context.
Grammar
The description of patterns and structures in a language
Verb
Class:Open
- A word which expresses a state or an action
Noun
Class:Open
- The name of a person, place or thing
Adjective
Class:Open
- A quality of a noun (or pronoun. It's a word which describes a noun
Adverb
Class:Open
- word used to describe a noun, verb, adjective or another adverb.
Pronoun
Class:Closed
- Word used to replace a noun
ie- He, She, It, They...
Preposition
Class:Closed
- Can express relationships between a noun phrase or a verb phrase, usually a marker of time + place.
Demonstrative
Class:Closed~ (this and that)
- "This" indicates something close.
- "That" indicates something far.
Conjunction
Class:Closed
- Words that add, subtract or provide alternative choice.
ie- and, but, or...
Article
Class:Closed
(a, an, the, _)
Volume
"Term found in Grammar Practice Activities"
- The sheer amount of comprehnesible language that is spoken, heard, read or written in the course of the activity.
Societal Function
Refers to how language is used to get things done.
Dialects
- Different types of language varieties
* Include regional + social dialects.
- Dialect differences arise from isolation of populations.
Additive Bilingualism
The outcomes of bilingual education programs that aim to add competence in a second language to students' existing competence in the first language.
* The students thus maintain competence in their first language.
Subtractive Bilingualism
- The outcome of bilingual programs that foster second language learning at the expense of the student's first language.
* The first language is replaced with the second language.
Deficit Model of Minority Education
Views minorities as having an array of deficits.
ie- language deficits, economic deficits, cultural deficits...
Ur's Stages of Grammar Teaching
1) Presentation
2) Isolation and Explanation
3) Practice
4) Test
Verb Phrase
the part of the sentence which contains the main verb+ also any object, complements or adverbials
~ Is a verb alone, or a verb with one or more auxiliary verbs.
Descriptive Grammar
A grammar which describes how a language is actually spoken and/or written, and does not state or prescribe how it ought to be spoken or written
Lexical Verbs
A verb that has a meaning that you can look up in the dictionary
Auxiliary Verbs
AKA Helping Verb
- A verb which is used with another verb in a sentence, and which shows grammatical functions such as aspect, voice, mood, tense and person.
- The auxiliary verb comes before the lexical verb in a sentence.
Central Goal of an EFL/ESL Teacher
To assist learners in developing their communicative competence
Lexical Verb: Action Meaning
Dynamic Use: When a verb is used to a happening with a beginning and an end.
ie. Swim, Run, Fly
Stative Use: When a verb is used to describe a happening without a recognizable beginning and end.
* These verbs have an -ing ending.
Lexical Verbs: Copular Meaning
Verbs used to express a linking relationship between the subject and something else. (usually a noun phrase or adjective)
Prescriptive Grammar
A grammar which states rules for what is considered the best or most correct usage.
Auxiliary Verbs: Primary
There are only 3 (do, have, be)
Auxilary Verbs: Modal
There are about 10
(can, could, will, would, shall, may, must, should, might)
- used to express some degree of doubt
- often used to express future meaning
- thier verb forms can never change (can't be put into verb tenses)
Iterative Aspect
The action or state is repetitive or habitual in the past. Its is signaled by the semi-auxiliary (used to)
Resultative
AKA Factitive
- While (as usual) it expresses an action tht began in the past and continued to the present, here the interest is the result
~ For use with a sentence that has no time marker.
ie- I finished my homework (means I can relax)
Aspect
How the speaker sees the action in a verb phrase.
There are four aspects
1. Simple
2. Continuous (progressive)
3. Perfect
4. Iterative
Time and Tense
Time and Tense are not the same thing in grammar.
- Time refers to the meaning (past, present, future)
- Tense refers to the form of the verb that is used to express our culural notions related to time.
The Verb Tenses
The English language only truly has 2 verb tenses.
1) past
2) Present
~ Future tense is actually using the present tense + a future marker
~ Future is often expressed by using a modal auxiliary verb + the base form of a lexical verb.
Mood (in grammar)
- The mood refered to in English grammar is the mood of doubt, of uncertainity
Past Perfect Form
- Refers to action that was complete by a specific time in the past.
Subjunctive Mood
The form of the verb which expresses uncertainity, wishes, desires...
~ Usually refers to non-factual or hypothetical situations
ie- I wish I had a $1,000,000
Voice
Refers to whether a verb is: Active or Passive
- Active Voice indicates the subject is acting on the object (ie The wolf ate the rabbit)
- Passive Voice indicates that the subject is being acted upon by something or someone. (ie The mice were eaten by the wolf.)
* The object in an active construction becomes that subject in passive.
Agent
- The noun or noun phrase which refers to the person or animal which performs the action of the verb.
- The term agent is sometimes used only for the noun or noun phrase which follows "by" in passive sentences, even if it doesn't refer to the preformer of an action.
Subject
The job of the subject is to permit the speaker to indicate "who" or "what" is the doer of the action or what is being talked about.
Modifiers (Pre+Post Modifiers)
Provide additional information about the headword in a noun phrase.
-Premodifier: comes before the headword in a noun phrase and are typically adjectives
-Postmodifier:Come after the headword in a noun phrase and are typically phrases or clauses.
Noun Phrase
May be a single word or a noun that has other words added to make it more specific.
There are 3 parts to a noun Phrase.
1) Head word
2) Modifier or Modifiers
3) Determiner or Determiners
Sentence
A unit of language which expresses a complete idea
~ It must contain at least a subject+verb
Phrase
A word or group of words which acts as part of speech. It is a convenient notation to avoid having to say a word or group of words.
Meta Cognitive
Thinking about thinking. Analysis of the thinking process or examining how one learns.
Clause
A word or group of words which (with one exception) contain a verb.
Five Main Grammatical Functions
1) Subject
2) Verb
3) Object
4) Complement
5) Adverbial
Types of Pronouns
- Personal (I, we, me, she, it...)
- Possessive (my, our, your, his, its...)
- Reflexive (myself, ourselves, yourself, himself...)
- Indefinite (somebody, anybody, no body, someone...)
- Interrogative (who, which, what, whose...)
Two Functions of Adjectives in Sentences
Can be a modifier or a complement.
Pro-Form
~ Used in a noun phrase
Makes a noun phrase more efficent.
*Accomplished through using "Pronouns: he, she..." and "Demonstratives:this, that"
Proper Nouns
Name of specific people or things. (they begin with capital letters)
ie. Skipp Symes, June, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, India.
~ All other nouns are common nouns.
Common Nouns
Nouns that are not the names of specific people or things.
ie- person, dog, country, city...
Irregular Plural Form Nouns
Nouns that are made plural in way other than adding -s.
ie. syllabus/syllabi
~Includes nouns that have no plural form- news, pants, scissors...
Regular Plural Form Nouns
A noun which is made by adding -s or -es to the noun
~These are pronouned with /s/, /z/ or /ez/
Variable Nouns
The noun form varies according to whether they are singualr or plural, and accompanying verbs or pornouns are also variable
ie- Singular
The <cat is> on the table.
The <book is> mine.
The <goose stays> in the barn.
ie- Plural
The <cats are> on the table.
The <books are> mine.
The <geese stay> in the barn.
Invariable Nouns
Nouns that always have the same form.
Singular Invariable Nouns: Always take the singular form of the verb. Non-count nouns fall into this category.
ie- The <news is> on the TV.
Plural Invariable Nouns: Always take the plural form of the verb.
ie- The <archives are> housed in the library.
Number in Nouns
Variable Nouns:
- regular variable nouns (dogs, cats, books)
- Irregular variable Nouns (goose/geese, child/children)
Invariable Nouns
- Singular Invariable Noun (news, music, gold)
- Plural Invariable Noun (sissors, pants, cattle)
~ Determined by the verb form used
Number "Grammatical Term"
Whether the form of a word is singular or plural
Includes: Regular or irregular; Variable or Invariable; Countable or Non-Countable
Gender
In grammatical terms it means "kind" or "type". It is a classification system of nouns and refers to masculine or feminine meanings of the noun.
Pronoun Cases
- Subjective Case: is used for the subject. ie- <I> like pizza.
- Objective Case: is used for direct + indirect objects ie- Cats like <me>
- Genitive Case: is used for possession and other relationships between pronouns, nouns + noun phrases. ie- <My> cat is special.
Genitive Case Nouns
Used to indicate possession, but can also be used to express other relationships between nouns.
ie- That's <Bill's> bag.
Common Case Nouns
Nouns that are unmarked for case and are used for subject, direct/indirect object and complement.
ie- The <cat> chased the <rat>.
Two Types of Case in Nouns
- Common
- Genitive- possession
Vocative
A noun phrase added to a sentence to indicate who the speaker is talking to.
ie- <Raigne>, please pass me the ketchup.
Inversion
*Turns a simple sentence in a yes/ no question.
~ The subject and part of the verb phrase are inverted (switch places.
ie- I will buy a dog. = Will I buy a dog?
Negation
Making a Sentence Negative
There are 4 ways to make a sentence negative.
1) Making the verb negative but adding "not"
2) Making the verb negative by adding negative words like never
3) Make a noun phrase negative
4) Inserting the auxiliary <do> if their is no auxiliary that can be used by the operator.
Prepositional Phrase
Phrase that begin with prepositions
ie- It can be linked with noun phrases or clauses after the preposition.
* Often Adverbials in sentences.
4 types of Adverbials
-Adjunct: expression of circumstances
- Subjunct: used to express intensity of the verb
- Disjunct: represent speakers attitude to what's being said.
- Conjunct: Allows speaker to express relationships between clauses or sentences. ie "and"
5 forms that an Adverbial can take
- Adverb
- Conjunction
- Prepositional Phrases
- Noun Phrases
- Clauses
" Adverbials say when, where, why, how + under what conditions.
Clause
Refers to a sentence within a sentence. A clause must have a verb.
~ There are two types of clauses
- Coordinate
- Subordinate
Prepositional Multiword Verbs
"Latin Words"
- Verb plus preposition
- Must be followed by a noun phrase (or clause)
- The preposition sometime movies into a WH question.
-the verb might be stressed
- Always inseparable
Phrasal Multiword Verbs
"Germanic Words"
- verb plus adverb or preposition.
- does not need to be followed by a noun phrase
- the adverb or preposition cannot move for a question.
- the adverb or preposition maybe stressed
- some are separable
- some are intransitive (having no Object)
- some are transitive (having an Object)
Text Structure
How sentences are combined to make a larger unit (ie- oral exchange, a letter, a lecture or a research paper)
Coordinated Sentences
Its is two or more sentecnes each with a verb joined by a conjunction
ie- but, and, or
ie2- I like cats <but> I like dogs more.
Ellipsis
Omission of a recoverable (by hearer) piece of information
ie- don't (for: do not)
ie2- Tom and Jerry came. (for: Tom came. Jerry came.)
Complex Sentence
A sentence which has more than one verb.
Has a main clause with a main verb and a subordinate clause has its own verb.
It includes a clause used as one or more sentence elements (SOCA), or as parts of the sentence elements (SOCA)
External Connectors
They are conjuncts/ conjunctions
Internal Connectors
Include such features as:
~ Use of ellipsis
~ repetition of a content word
~ Use of a synonym or lexical chain (a series or words with related meanings)
~ use of a proform
~ use of "the"