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37 Cards in this Set

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metallic bond
The chemical bond characteristic of metals, in which mobile valence electrons are shared among atoms in a usually stable crystalline structure.
ionic bond
A chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges, characteristic of salts. Also called electrovalent bond.
covalent bond
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms.
vesicular
containing cells or cavities
aphanitic
fine grained
phaneritic
course grained
felsic
an adjective used in reference to igneous rocks that are rich in feldpar and quartz
mafic
magmas and rocks that are poor in silica and rich in iron and magnesium
ultramafic
magmas and igneous ricks that are very poor in silica and rich in iron and magnesium
lopolith
bowl or cup-like intrusion
laccolith
mushroom shaped intrusion
stock
irregularly shaped pluton with <100 sq kilometers of exposed
area.
sill
bakes rock above and below layer
dike
wall like intrusion cuts accross rock layers
batholith
irregularly shaped pluton with >100 sq kilometers of exposed
area
fractional crystallization
the process in which magma becomes more silicic due to crystals settling out
assimilation
the process of magma contamination in which blocks of wall rock fall into a magma camber and dissolve
shield volcano
a subarial volcano with a brad gentle dome formed either from low viscosity basaltic lava or from large pyroclastic sheets
stratovolcano
a large cone shape sub areial volcano consisting of alternating layers of lava and tephra
pahoehoe
a lava flow with surface texture of smooth glassy rope like ridges
aa
lava flow with a rubbly surface (sharp)
tephra
unconsolidated accumulations of pyroclastic grains
lahar
a thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, ether in rivers or fromrain or melting snow and ice
strike
The horizontal line marking the intersection between the inclined plane of a solid geological structure and the Earth's surface. 2. The compass direction of this line, measured in degrees from true north.
dip
The angle formed by the inclined plane of a geological structure and the horizontal plane of the Earth's surface
fold axis
A bend that develops in an initially horizontal layer of rock, usually caused by plastic deformation. Folds occur most frequently in sedimentary rocks.
hanging wall
body of rock above the fault (the rock that hangs over a miner’s head)
Foot Wall-
body of rock below the fault (the rock on which the miner’s feet rest)
Normal faults
result from tension
Thrust faults
result from compression
Reverse faults
result from compression
Strike-Slip
faults result from shear
monocline
a simple bend in an otherwise flat rock
syncline
limbs that fold up away from axis
anticline
limbs that fold down away from axis
craton
The segment of the Earth's continents that have remained tectonically stable and relatively earthquake-free for a vast period of time. The craton is composed of the continental shield and the surrounding continental platform
orogen
mountain