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44 Cards in this Set

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monophyletic
a common ancestor and all of its descendants. monophyletic is also natural because it accurately reflects history.
paraphyletic
includes a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants
polyphyletic
does not include most recent common ancestor
cladogram vs clade
cladogram=tree. clade=branch aka lineage. the gap (with no name) between chordata and craniata can also be a clade. see page 4 from notebook
apomorphy
evolutionary novelty
synapomorphy
shared evolutionary novelty
autapomorphy
feature that is unique to the species
plesiomorphy, general, primitive
opposite terms are: apomorphy, novelty, derived, etc
homology
shared similarity due to common ancestry. in other words, a feature that is a novelty for sure. aka more confidence in synapomorphy.
analogy
same function evolved separately (no recent common ancestor) due to need in function
biodiversity
# of morphologies
# of species, which is a product of gene changes and speciation
biological species concept (BSC)
is a group of interbreeding natural populations, reproductively isolated from other such group
Evolutionary species concept (ESC)
views species as lineages evolving through time (aka geological SC). again reproductive isolation is key. formal definition=is a lineage of ancestor descendant populations that maintains its identity from other populations
paleontological SC
a lineage of ancestor descendant populations broken arbritrarily into chronospecies
allopatric speciation
species arise due to extrinsic property such as a mountain range dividing 1 population into 2.
type A
dividing equally in half, therefore novelties appear at same rate and daughter species equi-distant from ancestral species
peripheral isolate model (type B)
smaller population achieves novelties faster than B. aka more rapid evolution in smaller group
parapatric speciation
even though they are contiguous populations, selection prevents interbreeding
sympatric
new species arising within ancestral range. always intrinsic. example is polyploidy, which is when doubled chromosomes can only interbreed with other polyploids
biodiversity is
biodiversity=speciation - extinction
persistance
resistance to extinction which is surviving.
phylogeny
phylogeny is a cladogram with data
conjunction
if two hypothesized homologies in same organisms, then they can't be same thing.
congruence
are similarities congruent with other similarities in same taxa. aka more evidence to support other evidence.
epigenetic
result of cell and tissue interactions; aka no genetic code for trait. knee caps are an example
teratologies
anomaly that takes place during development. changes that make appearance very different.
heterochrony
different rates of development can cause major changes
paedomorphosis
occurence of juvenile characteristics in adults. adults look like kids. example= miniature dog
peramorphosis
ontogenies transcend beyond ancestral ontogeny to a new form.
convergence
independent acquisition of similar looking novelties
consilience
if looking at mammals and you look outside, such as parasites, and both of their phylogenies match, then it is a robust phylogeny
homoplasy
independently evolved similarity
reductive evolution
makes organism look more primitive. often associated with paedomorphosis. example= snakes lack tetrapod limbs but are still tetrapods because of other features
paraphyly
is based on authoritarianism (aka artificial grouping)
heuristic
structure that is informative about further reasearch (aka points you in right direction)
more on paraphyly
reptiles include birds. when reptiles don't include birds, then it is paraphyletic.
deuterostomia
cell fate not determined until gastrulation
spiral cleavage
cell can be tracked to specific function
radial cleavage
cleavage in deuterostoma. all deuterostoma have radial cleavage. radial cleavage forms ball that hollows out.
blastopore
blastopore becomes anus in deuterostoma
hemichordata
may or may not be chordata. pax 1,9 gene shows that hemichordata can fit in chordata group
pharyngotremata
term used for hemichordata and chordata
notochord
notochord is present in embryos of all chordates but can be replaced later in life
why can't a paedomorphic urochordate be a vertebrate ancestor
because they're sister groups