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14 Cards in this Set

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A member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the Church of England.
Puritan
In 1628, group of distinguished Puritan businessmen formed a venture named the Governor and Company of ----------, which was initially conceived as a profit-making endeavor in the New World. A land grant was received from the Council of New England, the successor to the ineffective Virginia Company of Plymouth, providing rights to the area between the Charles and Merrimack rivers and westward to the Pacific Ocean. Preliminary voyages were made in 1628 and 1629, and resulted in the establishment of a small colony on Cape Ann and later at Salem. John Winthrop lived here.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
In 1608, a community of English separatists decided to escape persecution by moving to Holland, an area long known for its toleration. Dutch society was so welcoming that the -----, as they had come to be known, eventually feared that they were losing control over their children. In 1620, they set out for a more remote location that would allow them to protect their community. This effort resulted in the founding of Plymouth Colony.
Pilgrims
The pilgrims' solution to the problem of the lack of authority was to create it themselves. The document known as the ------ was drafted aboard ship and signed by 41 of the adult males. The agreement first acknowledged the colonists' loyalty to King James I, and then bound them in a "civil Body Politick" for the purpose of forming just laws for the entire community. This document established a social contract within the community and formed a government based upon the consent of the governed.

The ------ is often regarded as the first written constitution in North America, but it was actually an adaptation of the common church covenant to civil purposes.
Mayflower Compact
In 1639, representatives from Hartford, Wethersfield and Windsor met to establish a government for the growing settlements. They drafted the ---------, sometimes cited as the first constitution written in America. The settlers emulated many of the practices used in Massachusetts, but placed additional limitations on the governor’s powers and instituted more liberal voting standards.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
after getting chucked out of Salem, this outspoken religious nonconformist founded Rhode Island.
Roger Williams
Big deal with the Spanish Armada, tried to found a bajillion and 2 colonies in virginia, was imprisoned in the tower of london for secretly marrying one of elizabeth's ladies in waiting. ah yes, and the lovely place we live is named for him.
Sir Walter Raleigh
--------- early history alternated between near disaster and faint success. The root difficulty was that the colony needed soldiers, craftsmen and farmers, but instead was populated largely by self-important gentlemen unaccustomed to manual labor. Energy was wasted in the search for gold and silver, when prudence would have demanded crop planting. The consequences of such actions were severe. More than one-third of the colonists died during the winter of 1607-08, having fallen prey to malaria, typhoid fever, scurvy and dysentery. The health crisis was compounded by bitter leadership feuds within the shrinking community. In 1608, Captain John Smith, a soldier, forced his will on the colonists and successfully organized efforts to plant crops and construct proper dwellings.
Jamestown
Cecilius Calvert (son of Lord Baltimore) encouraged fellow Catholics to settle there. While establishing a refuge for Catholics who were facing increasing persecution in Anglican England, the Calverts also were interested in creating profitable estates. To this end, and to avoid trouble with the British government, they also encouraged Protestant immigration.
Maryland
In 1681, Charles II of England granted 40,000 square miles of land controlled by his brother, the Duke of York, to -------, son of a famous admiral of the same name. Quakers settled there, as well as other religious refugees.
Pennsylvania
From the beginning, ----'s aims were twofold: to provide a haven for fellow Quakers (“the Holy Experiment”) and to produce a profit. He arrived at the new colony in 1682 and set about meticulous planning for the city of -----. ----- was generally successful in maintaining good relations with neighboring Indian tribes and governed the colony effectively for two years. He then returned to England to combat the persecution of Quakers there and to seek the resolution of a boundary dispute with Maryland.
William Penn
In 1662, several congregations met and approved the "-------," a move designed to liberalize membership rules and bolster the church's position in the community. Henceforth, children of partial members could be baptized and, with evidence of a conversion experience, aspire to full membership.
Half-Way Covenant
By 1735, ---- had become the editor of the New York Weekly Journal and developed a reputation for sympathy with the popular side of public issues. In that year, ----- was brought to trial on charges of printing false and seditious statements about colonial officials. Despite clear instructions from the judge to the contrary, the jury found Zenger innocent of all charges. ----'s lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, had argued that the printed charges against the authorities were true and, therefore, did not constitute libel.
John Peter Zenger
Lasting fame resulted from the publication of Common Sense in January 1776, followed some months later by the first of a series of pamphlets called The Crisis. With the continental forces in retreat, American readers received encouragement from the installments of The Crisis.
Thomas Paine