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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an accent?
Unlike dialects, it has to do with sounds, not grammar/vocab.
What is a monophthong?
A vowel phoneme consisting of ONE distinct articulatory element; does not have a changing sound quality. /a/
What is a diphthong?
A single phoneme consisting of TWO vowel elements, the first is onglide and the second is offglide; has a changing sound quality. /aI/
What is an allograph?
Different ways to letter spell the same sound. For ex., fat and phat.
What are graphemes?
Letters.
What are morphemes?
The smallest unit of meaning in a language; include affixes, syllables, souhds, letters, combos of letters.
What are the two types of morphemes?
Free morphemes = unbound, they can stand alone with meaning.

Bound morphemes = They cannot stand alone with meaning; includes affixes, i.e., un-, pre-, -ment. They are rarely stressed, unless you are trying to change meaning, so they will influence how we say sounds.
What is a phoneme?
A special speech sound that can distinguish meaning, i.e., /p/ & /b/ in pat and bat. Language specific as far as meaning.
What is an allophone?
Variation in the way a phoneme is said, like when you put a burst on the end of the word "cap". Allophonic variation doesn't change word meaning.
What is free variation?
Refers to using ANY allophonic variation (for single phonemes)- it doesn't matter which allophone you use. /p/, /t/, /k/ are always in free variation at end of words, for ex.
What is complementary distribution?
Refers to a context where the allophone you make is rele governed by the language; two allophones are not interchangeable due to phonetic constraints of their respective words. For ex., "spy"- /p/ will never burst after /s/. Usually occurs at beginning of words.
What is minimal pair/minimal contrast?
Pairs of words that differ by only 1 phoneme (this is different from allophonic variation in that it changes meaning of words). For ex., "cook" and "book".
What is broad transcription?
aka, phonemic transcription; it's when you transcribe the phoneme you hear; use burfules/slashes to show; usually enough info is gotten for working in SLP.
What is narrow transcription?
aka, allophonic transcription; when yo utranscribe the allophone you hear (specific); use diacriticmarks and brackets around words to show
What are some ways to categorize vowels?
1. Retroflexed/Non-Retroflexed;
2. Monophthongs/Diphthongs; 3. Tense/Lax;
4. Rounded/Unrounded;
5. Tongue Height/Tongue Advancement.
What does retroflexed mean?
Has to do with how you make the vowel; tongue tip is curled backwards (retroflexed); in narrow transcription it is indicated by diacritic mark that's an upside down v located above and to right of phoneme.
What does rhotacized mean?
Has to do with sound quality; having an r-like quality.
What are "diphthonged vowels"?
All Retroflexed/Rhotacized vowels... /ar/...
What does retroflexed mean?
Has to do with how you make the vowel; tongue tip is curled backwards (retroflexed); in narrow transcription it is indicated by diacritic mark that's an upside down v located above and to right of phoneme.
What does rhotacized mean?
Has to do with sound quality; having an r-like quality.
What are "diphthonged vowels"?
All Retroflexed/Rhotacized vowels... /ar/...
What is an accent?
Unlike dialects, it has to do with sounds, not grammar/vocab.
What is a monophthong?
A vowel phoneme consisting of ONE distinct articulatory element; does not have a changing sound quality. /a/
What is a diphthong?
A single phoneme consisting of TWO vowel elements, the first is onglide and the second is offglide; has a changing sound quality. /aI/
What is an allograph?
Different ways to letter spell the same sound. For ex., fat and phat.
What are graphemes?
Letters.
What are morphemes?
The smallest unit of meaning in a language; include affixes, syllables, souhds, letters, combos of letters.
What are the two types of morphemes?
Free morphemes = unbound, they can stand alone with meaning.

Bound morphemes = They cannot stand alone with meaning; includes affixes, i.e., un-, pre-, -ment. They are rarely stressed, unless you are trying to change meaning, so they will influence how we say sounds.
What is a phoneme?
A special speech sound that can distinguish meaning, i.e., /p/ & /b/ in pat and bat. Language specific as far as meaning.
What is an allophone?
Variation in the way a phoneme is said, like when you put a burst on the end of the word "cap". Allophonic variation doesn't change word meaning.
What is free variation?
Refers to using ANY allophonic variation (for single phonemes)- it doesn't matter which allophone you use. /p/, /t/, /k/ are always in free variation at end of words, for ex.
What is complementary distribution?
Refers to a context where the allophone you make is rele governed by the language; two allophones are not interchangeable due to phonetic constraints of their respective words. For ex., "spy"- /p/ will never burst after /s/. Usually occurs at beginning of words.
What is minimal pair/minimal contrast?
Pairs of words that differ by only 1 phoneme (this is different from allophonic variation in that it changes meaning of words). For ex., "cook" and "book".
What is broad transcription?
aka, phonemic transcription; it's when you transcribe the phoneme you hear; use burfules/slashes to show; usually enough info is gotten for working in SLP.
What is narrow transcription?
aka, allophonic transcription; when yo utranscribe the allophone you hear (specific); use diacriticmarks and brackets around words to show
What are some ways to categorize vowels?
1. Retroflexed/Non-Retroflexed;
2. Monophthongs/Diphthongs; 3. Tense/Lax;
4. Rounded/Unrounded;
5. Tongue Height/Tongue Advancement.
What is an open syllable?
There's no consonant after vowel (or ends in a vowel), i.e., "toe"
What is a closed syllable?
The syllable ends in a consonant, i.e., "tote".
What is a syllabic consonant?
When a consonant takes on the role of a vowel, i.e., "button" said quickly like "butn". There can't be any open vowel sound to be a syllabic consonant. "Bottle" is not a syllabic consonant!