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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the No Child Left Behind Act myth?
The NCLB act doesn't require ELLs to participate in measures of adequate yearly progress AYP because it would be unfair to hold these students to the same standards as monolingual English speakers
What is the reality of No Child Left Behind?
NCLB holds schools, districts and states responsible for the success and achievement of ELLs, requiring the inclusion of ELLs in state testing programs and AYP reporting.
What does NCLB require?
1. All ELL students' English language proficiency must be tested at least once a year using a test that measures all four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
2. All ELL's must take state academic achievement tests in language arts and math, except those who have been in the US less than one year (they are only exempt for one year). If available, students may take the exam in their native language or have the exam modified to simplify English.
3. ELL students who have in the US school system for 3+ consecutive years must take state academic test in English (can be extended to 5 year period on a case-by-case basis)
4. ELL students as a group to meet specific annual targets of the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). Schools, districts, and states will be held accountable for ensuring that they meet these targets.
5. Requires schools, districts, and states to pull out the scores of ELL students and examine them to see if they are performing on par with other groups of students.
6. Allows a whole school or district to be labeled as "low-performing" should the group of ELLs fail to meet AYP
What are the six assessment issues Abedi identifies as they relate to AYP reporting?
1. Inconsistency in ELL classification across and within states.
2. Sparse ELL populations.
3. Lack of ELL subgroup stability.
4. Measurement quality of AYP instruments for ELL students.
5. ELL base line scores.
6. ELL cutoff points.
What is inconsistent in ELL classifications across and within states? How does it affect the AYP reporting?
Different criteria used to classify students as ELL cause inconsistencies that directly affect the accuracy of AYP reporting for ELL students. This means that the tracking of subgroup progress is likely to be suspect and unreliable.
What does sparse ELL populations mean? How does it affect the AYP reporting?
The number of ELL students vary across the nation, often the number of ELL students in any given state or district is not large enough for a meaningful analysis. Depending on the number established for subgroup size, a small number of ELL students may skew states' accountability and adversely affect state and federal policy decisions.
What does lack of ELL subgroup stability men? How does it affect AYP reporting?
Because students' levels of English proficiency change over time, the movement of ELL students out of the ELL subgroup almost guarantees that even with the best resources, there is not much chance of improving the AYP indicator of the ELL subgroup over time.
What is measurement quality of AYP instruments for ELL students mean? How does it affect AYP reporting?
Studies have show that academic achievement tests that are constructed and normed for native English speakers have lower reliability and validity for ELL populations. Results of such rests should not be interpreted for ELL students as they are for non-ELL students.
What does ELL baseline scores mean? How does it affect AYP reporting?
Schools with higher numbers of ELL students generally have lower baseline scores, making year-to-year progress much more challenging and even unrealistic.
What are ELL cutoff points? How do they affect AYP reporting?
Because NCLB requires all students to score 'proficient' in all content areas, subjects such as reading with heavy and higher language demands than subjects such as math are almost sure to make the AYP requirement more difficult for schools with many ELL students.
What did the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) recommend to the Department of English regarding the NCLB Act in 2006?
They recommended that the Department of Education explored ways to provide additional flexibility to states in how they assess ELL.
What did the Department of Education agree to other recommendations from the GAO in 2006?
1. Supporting additional research on testing accommodations for ELLs.
2. Determining what additional help states need to ensure that tests are valid and reliable for ELLs.
3. Providing more guidance on how states should test how well students are learning English.
What pilot program did the Department of Education launch?
LEP Partnership; designed to explore ways ti improve testing of reading and math for ELLs.
What are the strengths of NCLB Act?
It holds schools, districts, and states responsible for the success and achievement of ELL students. It tracks their progress through the inclusion of in state testing programs and AYP reporting. Schools have consequences for not meeting the needs of their ELL students (keeps them accountable).
What are the weaknesses of NCLB Act?
The AYP reporting is not sufficiently supporting ELL progress. The results are inconsistent due to differences in ELL classification, sparse ELL populations, lack of ELL subgroup stability, the measurement of AYP instruments for ELL students, ELL baseline scores, and ELL cut off points.
What is problematic with the conclusion of the National Reading Panel report (2000)?
The conclusions the report drew weren't necessarily consistent with its own findings, leading to false claims of generalizability.
Why is the National Reading Panel report an unreliable source?
There have been various and contradictory versions of the NRP report (the almost 600 Reports of the Subgroups, the 34 page Summary, and a publicity video). Inconsistent conclusions, did not include research on ELLs, study based on decoding decontextualized words rather than reading extended texts.
Why is the fact that the National Reading Panel report did not research ELLs problematic?
ELLs are a growing population, policies and mandates have grown out of the report, such as Reading First, have generalized those findings to ELLs thus mandated inappropriate instructional programs and approaches. This report influenced NCLB Act 2001.
What are the strengths and weakness of the NRP report?
There are no strengths. The researchers extended their results to ELL students without research. Their results conflicted and were inconsistent.
What is a submersion program?
Inclusion of English language learners in all English programs that do not incorporate systematic, sustained strategies for accommodating students.
What is the reality of the second language acquisition myth: Learning a second language is an entirely different proposition from learning one's own native language?
The reality is that there are many parallels between learning a first and second language. Think of a coin, we can think of first and second language learning as its two sides: essentially the same in composition, but with different designs and different features.
What are the 6 features of L2 acquisition?
L2 learners are more cognitively mature than L1 learners.
Learning a language involves hypothesis and testing, errors are integral to language learning.
3. Understanding a language usually precedes language production; a silent period is normal.
4. Younger learnings may pronounce the L2 with minimal accent, but older learners are usually more efficient and able to confront more complex linguistic situations.
5. Mastering academic language may take L2 learners up to seven years.
6. Sociocultural factors such as, personality, cultural affiliation, prior schooling, and teacher expectations, influence L2 acquisition and academic success.
Why are older L2 learners sometimes seen as more efficient learners?
The academic language required once younger learners reach the higher elementary grades relies more on decontextualized content which creates a mismatch between the conceptual and linguistic competence of the learner. The process of understanding and mastering decontextualized language use is much more challenging.
Older learners have more sophisticated language skills that help them maneuver through complex social situations and challenging academic situations.
What is the reality of this myth: Once second language learners are able to speak reasonably fluently, their problems are likely to be over in school?
The reality is that the ability to speak a second language especially in conversation settings does not guarantee that a student will be able to use the language effectively in academic settings.
Why is careful planning necessary for ELL students?
To help ELL students develop the decontextualized language skills they will need to master the cognitively demanding content in the higher grades.
What is the reality of this myth: Learning academic English is equally challenging for all second language learners?
The challenge of learning English for school varies tremendously from learner to learner and depends on many factors.
What is the strongest predictor of L2 student achievement?
The strongest predictor is the amount of formal L1 schooling. The more L1 grade level schooling, the higher L2. achievement.
What are the common educational backgrounds of L2 learners?
Some lack even basic academic skills in their native language, some may be illiterate in their native tongue, some may not have a written form of their native tongue, others may have been schooled in a nonnative language in their homeland (a Mayan student learning Spanish in school).
What supports literacy in the second language?
Literacy in the students first/ native language.
What is the reality of this myth: If we focus on teaching the English language, learning in all areas will occur faster?
The reality is that language learning is a developmental process, while learning a language will not occur in the absence of exposure to the language, increased exposure to the language (particularly in academic settings) does not guarantee quicker learning.
What is the reality of this myth: students from Asian countries are better English language learners and more academically successful than students from Spanish speaking backgrounds?
Students from all language and cultural backgrounds are equally capable of learning English as a second language; academic success cannot be attributed to language or cultural background, but rather to a variety of social, emotional, intellectual, and academic factors.
What else influences academic success?
The cultural messages received by children from both the school and the larger society may influence their feelings about school as well as their feelings about themselves in relation to school.
What other dilemmas do ELL students face?
Minority students must choose between competing cultural frames; one that promotes school success, and one that does not, but is considered appropriate for a good member of the minority group.
What is the reality of this literacy myth: Because literacy is so important these days we need to spend as much time as it takes during the regular school day teaching English literacy, even if it means holding off on content area instruction?
The reality is if ELLs are only taught English literacy, their academic development will be delayed. It is essential that ELLs be well grounded in both English literacy and content area knowledge.
What supports ELLs language development?
Many ELLs receive pull-out ESOL instruction and increasingly this English language instruction is integrated with content area instruction. Classes that integrate content area subject matter and language/literacy development for ELLs typically incorporate strategies that make the often-abstract, context-reduced content comprehensible to ELLs.
What strategies promote scaffolding for ELL learners?
1. Using manipulatives, objects, videos, visuals, gestures, and demonstrations.
2. Grouping students for collaborative study and problem solving.
3. Building on the knowledge and interests of students.
3. Teaching content words and terms, as well as the grammatical structures of academic discourse and genres.
5. Using a variety of print materials.
6. Mediating complex texts through paraphrasing or restating, drawing key ideas, and using more common vocabulary and more high frequency grammatical structures.
7. Engaging students in meaningful writing.
8. Taking students on content-related field trips.
9. Modifying their speech.
Can ELL learners learn English through osmosis?
Students need explicit instruction in academic language and learning strategies to enhance their learning of both content and language, such as focusing oneself on the task at hand, questioning for clarification, inferring, predicting, planning, learning, and self evaluating.
Do low expectations affect ELL students?
Students placed in unchallenging classes often find school boring and perform at low levels. Low expectations can have a negative impact on learners.
What is the reality of this literacy myth: When teaching newcomers, it is best to hold on reading and writing instruction until they have a pretty good grasp of oral English?
L2 learners should be exposed to meaningful experiences with print in English from early on in their English learning.
Is oral fluency enough for ELL students?
No, ELL students need to be proficient readers and writers.
Do all ELL students achieve oral fluency first?
No, some students excel in the print form of their non-native language, whereas others develop proficiency in oral fluency first.
What is the reality of this literacy myth: ELLs need a strong foundation in L1 literacy before being introduced to L2 literacy?
The reality is that although ELLs benefit enormously from having a strong foundation in their L1, circumstances do not always allow for the provision of bilingual education. In such cases well-designed and well implemented English-medium literacy instruction can lead to high levels of literacy in English.
Is a sink-or-swim approach a good method?
No, it should be avoided at all costs. Differentiated, carefully designed instruction that takes into account the strengths and needs of the ELL students should be provided.
What is the reality of this literacy myth: If we focus on teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, and how to decode in English and read fluently, ELLs will become successful readers in English?
Reading involves much more than decoding, and placing undue emphasis on phonemic awareness and word level decoding at the expense of vocabulary development and comprehension can be detrimental to the reading success of ELLs.
Is reading more than decoding?
Reading is much more than being able to decode. Successful reading is a meaning-making process that includes the ability to decode symbols so that meaning is made and preserved.