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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Sample
Set of actual observations; subset of the population
Statistics
Numerical values summarizing sample data
Parameters
Numerical values summarizing population data
Random sample
A sample in which each member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion
Population
Complete set of events in which you are interested
Decision tree
Graphical representation of decisions involved in the choice of statistical procedures
Measurement data (quantitative data)
Data obtained by measuring objects or events
Categorical data (frequency data, count data)
Data representing counts or number of observations in each category
Measurement
The assignment of numbers to objects
Scales of measurement
Characteristics of relations among numbers assigned to objects
Nominal scale
Numbers used only to distinguish among objects
Ordinal scale
Numbers used only to place objects in order
Interval scale
Scale on which equal intervals between objects represent equal differences--differences are meaningful
Ratio scale
A scale with a true zero point--ratios are meaningful
Variable
Properties of objects or events that can take on different values
Discrete variables
VAriables that take on a small set of possible values
Continuous variables
Variables that take on any value
Independent variables
Those variables controlled by the experimenter
Dependent variables
The variables being measured; the data or score
Random assignment
The allocation or assignment of participants to groups by a random process
Sigma
Symbol indicating summation
Constant
A number that does not change in value in a given situation.
Frequency distribution
A distribution in which the values of the dependent variable are tabled or plotted against their frequency of occurrence
Stem
Vertical axis of display containing the leading digits
Trailing digits (less significant digits)
Digits to the right of the leading digits
Leaves
Horizontal axis of display containing the trailing digits
Stem-and-leaf display
Graphical display presenting original data arranged into a histogram
Exploratory data analysis (EDA)
A set of techniques developed by Tukey for presenting data in visually meaningful ways
Leading digits (most significant digits)
Leftmost digits of a number
Histogram
Graph in which rectangles are used to represent frequencies of observations within each interval
Real lower limit
The point halfway between the bottom of one interval and the top of the one below it
Real upper limit
The point halfway between the top of one interval and the bottom of the next
Midpoint
Center of the interval; average of the upper and lower limits
Outlier
An extreme point that stand out from the rest of the distribution
Line graph
A graph in which the Y values corresponding to different values of X are connected by a line
Bar graph
A graph in which the frequency of occurrence of different values of X is presented by the height of a bar
Symmetric
Having the same shape on both sides of the center
Bimodal
A distribution having two distinct peaks
Unimodal
A distribution having one distinct peak
Modality
The number of meaningful peaks in a frequency distirbution of data
Negatively skewed
A distribution that trails off to the left
Positively skewed
A distribution that trails off to the right
Skewness
A measure of the degree to which a distribution is asymmetrical
Depth
Cumulative frequency counting in from the nearer end
Mode (Mo)
The most commonly occurring score
Median (Med)
The score corresponding to the point having 50% of the observations below it when observations are arranged in numberical order
Median location
The location of the median in an ordered series
Mean (X)
The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores