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48 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Sample

Set of actual observations; subset of the population


Statistics

Numerical values summarizing sample data


Parameters

Numerical values summarizing population data


Random sample

A sample in which each member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion


Population

Complete set of events in which you are interested


Decision tree

Graphical representation of decisions involved in the choice of statistical procedures


Measurement data (quantitative data)

Data obtained by measuring objects or events


Categorical data (frequency data, count data)

Data representing counts or number of observations in each category


Measurement

The assignment of numbers to objects


Scales of measurement

Characteristics of relations among numbers assigned to objects


Nominal scale

Numbers used only to distinguish among objects


Ordinal scale

Numbers used only to place objects in order


Interval scale

Scale on which equal intervals between objects represent equal differencesdifferences are meaningful


Ratio scale

A scale with a true zero pointratios are meaningful


Variable

Properties of objects or events that can take on different values


Discrete variables

VAriables that take on a small set of possible values


Continuous variables

Variables that take on any value


Independent variables

Those variables controlled by the experimenter


Dependent variables

The variables being measured; the data or score


Random assignment

The allocation or assignment of participants to groups by a random process


Sigma

Symbol indicating summation


Constant

A number that does not change in value in a given situation.


Frequency distribution

A distribution in which the values of the dependent variable are tabled or plotted against their frequency of occurrence


Stem

Vertical axis of display containing the leading digits


Trailing digits (less significant digits)

Digits to the right of the leading digits


Leaves

Horizontal axis of display containing the trailing digits


Stemandleaf display

Graphical display presenting original data arranged into a histogram


Exploratory data analysis (EDA)

A set of techniques developed by Tukey for presenting data in visually meaningful ways


Leading digits (most significant digits)

Leftmost digits of a number


Histogram

Graph in which rectangles are used to represent frequencies of observations within each interval


Real lower limit

The point halfway between the bottom of one interval and the top of the one below it


Real upper limit

The point halfway between the top of one interval and the bottom of the next


Midpoint

Center of the interval; average of the upper and lower limits


Outlier

An extreme point that stand out from the rest of the distribution


Line graph

A graph in which the Y values corresponding to different values of X are connected by a line


Bar graph

A graph in which the frequency of occurrence of different values of X is presented by the height of a bar


Symmetric

Having the same shape on both sides of the center


Bimodal

A distribution having two distinct peaks


Unimodal

A distribution having one distinct peak


Modality

The number of meaningful peaks in a frequency distirbution of data


Negatively skewed

A distribution that trails off to the left


Positively skewed

A distribution that trails off to the right


Skewness

A measure of the degree to which a distribution is asymmetrical


Depth

Cumulative frequency counting in from the nearer end


Mode (Mo)

The most commonly occurring score


Median (Med)

The score corresponding to the point having 50% of the observations below it when observations are arranged in numberical order


Median location

The location of the median in an ordered series


Mean (X)

The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores
