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### 48 Cards in this Set

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 Sample Set of actual observations; subset of the population Statistics Numerical values summarizing sample data Parameters Numerical values summarizing population data Random sample A sample in which each member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion Population Complete set of events in which you are interested Decision tree Graphical representation of decisions involved in the choice of statistical procedures Measurement data (quantitative data) Data obtained by measuring objects or events Categorical data (frequency data, count data) Data representing counts or number of observations in each category Measurement The assignment of numbers to objects Scales of measurement Characteristics of relations among numbers assigned to objects Nominal scale Numbers used only to distinguish among objects Ordinal scale Numbers used only to place objects in order Interval scale Scale on which equal intervals between objects represent equal differences--differences are meaningful Ratio scale A scale with a true zero point--ratios are meaningful Variable Properties of objects or events that can take on different values Discrete variables VAriables that take on a small set of possible values Continuous variables Variables that take on any value Independent variables Those variables controlled by the experimenter Dependent variables The variables being measured; the data or score Random assignment The allocation or assignment of participants to groups by a random process Sigma Symbol indicating summation Constant A number that does not change in value in a given situation. Frequency distribution A distribution in which the values of the dependent variable are tabled or plotted against their frequency of occurrence Stem Vertical axis of display containing the leading digits Trailing digits (less significant digits) Digits to the right of the leading digits Leaves Horizontal axis of display containing the trailing digits Stem-and-leaf display Graphical display presenting original data arranged into a histogram Exploratory data analysis (EDA) A set of techniques developed by Tukey for presenting data in visually meaningful ways Leading digits (most significant digits) Leftmost digits of a number Histogram Graph in which rectangles are used to represent frequencies of observations within each interval Real lower limit The point halfway between the bottom of one interval and the top of the one below it Real upper limit The point halfway between the top of one interval and the bottom of the next Midpoint Center of the interval; average of the upper and lower limits Outlier An extreme point that stand out from the rest of the distribution Line graph A graph in which the Y values corresponding to different values of X are connected by a line Bar graph A graph in which the frequency of occurrence of different values of X is presented by the height of a bar Symmetric Having the same shape on both sides of the center Bimodal A distribution having two distinct peaks Unimodal A distribution having one distinct peak Modality The number of meaningful peaks in a frequency distirbution of data Negatively skewed A distribution that trails off to the left Positively skewed A distribution that trails off to the right Skewness A measure of the degree to which a distribution is asymmetrical Depth Cumulative frequency counting in from the nearer end Mode (Mo) The most commonly occurring score Median (Med) The score corresponding to the point having 50% of the observations below it when observations are arranged in numberical order Median location The location of the median in an ordered series Mean (X) The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores