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58 Cards in this Set

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The amount of energy that reactants in a chemical reaction must absorb before the reaction can start.
activation energy
The substrate-binding region of an enzyme or other protein.
active site
Movement of substances across a membrane against their concentration gradient, requiring ATP energy.
active transport
A nucleotide composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and two phosphate groups.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
A nucleotide composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. The energy currency of the cell.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Fat-storing connective tissue in the body.
adipose tissue
An adjective describing an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
aerobic
Cellular respiration that uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor.
aerobic respiration
Abnormal cessation of the menstrual cycle.
amenorrhea
Cellular respiration that uses molecules other than oxygen, such as NAD, as the electron acceptor.
anaerobic respiration
An eating disorder characterized by self-starvation.
anorexia
An enzyme found in the mitochondria that helps create ATP.
ATP synthase
The amount of energy required to sustain the body's functioning in an awake person at rest.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
A calculation using height and weight to make an estimate of body fat.
body mass index (BMI)
An eating disorder characterized by binge-eating followed by purging.
bulemia
Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1° C. at standard pressure.
calorie (with a lower case “c”)
1000 calories; the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1° C. at standard pressure.
Calorie (with an upper case “C”) or kilocalorie
To speed up the rate of a chemical reaction.
catalyze
Metabolic reactions occurring in cells that result in the oxidation of high-energy macromolecules with associated production of ATP.
cellular respiration
A structure in animal cells that helps anchor microtubules during cell division.
centriole
All of the chromosomal material in the nucleus of a cell. It stains darkly and makes the nucleus darker than the rest of the cell as viewed in a light microscope.
chromatin
The series of reactions catalyzed by enzymes located in the mitochondrial matrix that oxidize various substrates to produce ATP and reduced electron carriers.
(Krebs) citric acid cycle
The entire contents of the cell contained within the plasma (cell) membrane, excluding the nucleus.
cytoplasm
A network of protein tubules and fibers that branch throughout the cytoplasm and function to maintain the cell's shape and facilitate proper functioning of the cell.
cytoskeleton
The semi fluid portion of the cytoplasm.
cytosol
The movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Does not require external energy.
diffusion
A series of proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane that move electrons during the redox reactions that release energy to produce ATP.
electron transport chain
The uptake of substances by a cell by a pinching inward of the plasma membrane.
endocytosis
An interconnected network of membranous tubules found in eukaryotic cells. Functions as a factory for making proteins or lipids.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst and regulator of reaction rates for biochemical reactions.
enzyme
The release or secretion of cellular products from a cell by fusion of a membrane-bound vesicle with the plasma membrane.
exocytosis
The passage of substances through carrier or channel proteins in the plasma membrane, down their concentration gradient from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
facilitated diffusion
The anaerobic production of ATP from energy-rich molecules using an organic molecule, such as NAD, as an electron acceptor rather than oxygen. Ethanol or lactic acid are produced as by-products of this process.
fermentation
Literally, “sugar splitting”; the splitting of glucose to produce two pyruvate molecules. ATP and NADH are produced as by-products.
glycolysis
An organelle of eukaryotic cells consisting of flattened membranous discs or sacs that acts as a modification and sorting center for cellular products.
Golgi apparatus
An atom which consists of one proton and one electron.
hydrogen atom
A solution which has more dissolved solute as compared to a second solution. Water will flow through a selectively permeable membrane from the second solution to the first.
hypertonic
A solution which has less dissolved solute as compared to a second solution. Water will flow through a selectively permeable membrane from the first solution to the second.
hypotonic
A change in the conformation or shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds tightly to its substrate(s).
induced fit
A solution which has the same amount of dissolved solute as compared to a second solution. There will be no net directional flow of water through a selectively permeable membrane which separates the two solutions.
isotonic
A membrane bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Acts as the digestive organelle of the cell.
lysosome
The sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body. A cell’s capacity to extract, convert and use energy from its environment by a series of chemical reactions.
metabolism
The energy powerhouse organelle of eukaryotic cells; the site of production of ATP by aerobic mechanisms.
mitochondria
An organic molecule which acts as an electron carrier in cells.
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
The cellular structure that houses DNA in eukaryotic cells.
nucleus
A sub-cellular structure found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that performs a specific function.
organelle
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
osmosis
A condition of weakened bones due to loss of minerals that elevates the risk of bone fracture.
osteoporosis
The diffusion of substances across a membrane down their concentration gradient from high concentration to low concentration. Does not require ATP but may require a channel protein or carrier protein in the membrane.
passive transport
A component of biological membranes which consists of two sheets of phospholipid molecules arranged so that the hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids faces outward on both sides of the sheet and the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face each other on the interior of the membrane.
phospholipid bilayer (PLB)
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, which energizes the molecule.
phosphorylation
A phospholipid bilayer studded with proteins and cholesterol which surrounds the cell, defining its boundaries and acting as a gatekeeper to decide what may and may not enter or leave the cell.
plasma membrane (cell membrane)
A three-carbon organic molecule created when glucose is split in glycolysis.
pyruvic acid
A sub-cellular structure consisting of RNA and proteins that acts as the workbench where the information encoded in DNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a protein.
ribosome
Adjective describing a physiological or artificial membrane which allows some substances to cross the membrane but not others.
selectively permeable
Phenomenon of the enzyme shape determining the reaction which the enzyme is able to catalyze.
selectivity
The reactant(s) in an enzyme-driven reaction. Any chemical metabolized by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
substrate
The concentration of solute in a solution as compared to other solutions.
tonicity