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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Age
(HTN)Hypertension
Hx of Previous Stroke
Cardiac or venous flow
Artherosclerosis
CVA
Predisposing Factors
Diabetes
Smoking
Obesity
High blood cholesterol
CAD(Coronary Artery Disease)
CVA
Predisposing Factors
Fatty plaque clogs the artery
Blockage occurs
Atherosclerosis and blood flow
Ischemic
Hemorrhagic
Types of Stroke
Lack of blood flow deprives oxygen to the brain -
can result in infarction (tissue death)
Ischemia
Embolus
Thrombus
Vasospasm
Arterial causes of Ischemia
Sudden obstruction of a blood vessel caused by debris
Embolus
most often a blood clot
Thrombus
Contraction or hypertonia of the muscular coating of the blood vessel.
spasming can cause a "buble" in artery - bursting = aneurism
Vasospasm
Clot within the vessel that causes infarction (tissue death)
Thrombosis
Narrowing of the vessel that causes tissue death due to decreased blood flow
Stenosis
If you have ischemia you have stenosis and vasospasm
If you have ischemia you have stenosis and vasospasm
Intracranial hypertension,
Decreased cardiac input
Decreased circulation
Causes of Ischemia
Arterial & Venous
Increased pressure withing the cranium
Decreased pressure in the heart
Intracranial Hypertension
CAused by stenosis or occlusion of vessel
Very common ; 60-% of all stroke cases
Thrombosis
Caused by atherosclerosis
Typical to have warning signs such as TIAs
Thrombosis
Dislodging platelets
High cholesterol
Other materials that block the vessel
Emboli
an escape of blood through a vessel wall
hemorrhage
Blood is released outside of vascular space
Cuts of pathways
Leading to pressure injuries of the brain
Hemorrhagic Stroke
Arteriovenous malformation
AVM
Subarachnoid (blow the brain lining)
Intracerebral - significantly higher damage
Types of Hemorrhage
Small, penetrating vessels become occluded
Lacunar Stroke
Pts sometimes present with demetia like signs
Lacunar Stroke
Frontal
Temporal
Parietal
Occipital
Cerebellum, Brain Stem
Lobes of Brain
Primarily effects young adults
16-30
Age 60+ = work related falls
81% male
58% White, 28% Black,9%Hispanic
Age, Gender and Ethnicity at Injury
Nearly 60% = Cervical causing tetraplegia
46% = thoracic lumbar or sacral injury causing paraplegia
Neurological level of SC Injury
Renal Failure
Pneumonia
Pulmonary Emboli
Septicemia
Cause of Death
SC Injury
Cord bruised, stressed, stretched, compressed,
Vascular Insufficiency
What can happen to the SC
The number indicates the last level of the cord still intact
Important concept about
SC Injury
Flacid - 24-48 hours
High tone - posturing (spasticity)
Motor & sensory recovery
Recovery Process
Loss of: Sensation, motor
Increased reflexes
Incontinence
Sexual dysfunction
Poor circulation
Physical consequences
SC Injury