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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted together into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine; it carries the cell's genetic information and hereditary characteristics via its nucleotides and their sequence and is capable of self-replication and RNA synthesis.
Define RNA?
Ribonucleic acid; a polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose. The structure and base sequence of RNA are determinants of protein synthesis and the transmission of genetic information.
Define tRNA?
One of a class of RNA molecules that transports amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis. Also called transfer RNA.
Define mRNA?
RNA, synthesized from a DNA template during transcription, that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. Also called messenger RNA.
Define rRNA?
The RNA that is a permanent structural part of a ribosome. Also called ribosomal RNA.
Define. Codon?
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides constituting the genetic code that specifies the insertion of an amino acid in a specific structural position in a polypeptide chain during the synthesis of proteins.
Define anticodon?
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in tRNA designating a specific amino acid that binds to a corresponding codon in mRNA during protein synthesis.
Define Transcription?
The process by which mRNA is synthesized from a DNA template resulting in the transfer of genetic information from the DNA molecule to mRNA.
Define Translation?
The process by which mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes effect the production of a protein molecule from amino acids, the specificity of synthesis being controlled by the base sequences of the mRNA.
What is a gene? What are genes composed of?
A gene is a functional unit of hereditary. They are associated with DNA and consist of triplets necessary to form a protein.
What is a nucleotide composed of?
A nitrogenous base containing a sugar and a phosphate group.
Wha are the nitrogenous bases found in DNA?
Adenine and Thymine (2 bonds)
Guanine and Cytosine (3 bonds)
What are the nitrogenous bases found in RNA?
Adanine and Uracil (2 bonds)
Guanine and Cytosine (3 bonds)
What is Chromatin?
Chromitan is DNA in a non dividing cell it resembles a plet of noodles.
What are chromosomes?
Chromosomes are tightly coiled DNA founed in a cell ready for mitosis.