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11 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The genetic code is nearly universal in all organisms. Explain this code and how it is used to make proteins
The genetic code is a three letter code. Every three bases of the gene, and thus the mRNA, encode for a specific amino acid. The mRNA is read in three base intervals and the corresponding amino acid is added to a growing protein.
Describe the size of the human genome, how long it took to get fully sequenced and the approximate number of genes that were found. Was this number expected?
The total size of the human genome is 3 billion bases long. The process of sequencing the entire human genome took nearly 15 years to complete. The number of genes found was much lower than expected, roughly 20,000 - 30,000 genes
Explain how we can move from genes to traits. Include in your answer the Central Dogma of transcription and translation.
The genetic information in our DNA that encodes for a protein is called a gene. During transcription an RNA copy of the gene is made. This gene then travels to the cytoplasm where it is read by special proteins that interpret the code and combine amino acids in the correct order to create a protein.
Explain the biological process for assuring the likelihood of two siblings (other than identical twins) to be born genetically identical is less than 1 in 70 trillion
The process is based on the random distribution of the paternal and maternal chromosomes in the gametes. This mechanism alone generates 8.38 million different gametes. This number of gametes from each of the mating partners results in 70 trillion different possible genetic combinations in their offspring.
How does the influenza virus cycle of infection demonstrate the Commonality of Life? Include in your answer the four characteristics of the Commonality of Life
One way is that our own cell can replicate the viral RNA genome. Also, our own cell will read that RNA and make mRNA copies of it. Finally, our cellular machinery for making new proteins will make viral proteins from that mRNA because of the commonality of the genetic code.

Same biological building blocks
Same genetic codes
Some biosynthetic processes
Similar enzymes serving as catalysts for biological reactions
List five applications of the study of the human genome map
Genetic testing
Research in diseases
New therapeutic procedures
Evolution of human species
Ethnic group disease vulnerability
Explain the concept of differentiation gene expression
Differential gene expression suggests that different cell types possess the same set of genes. When cells become differentiated, only the relevant genes are expressed to produce their protein products, whereas the irrelevant genes are suppressed from expression.
Briefly explain the concept of secondary sexual characteristics
Secondary sexual characteristics are not directly involved in reproduction. They function to increase the sexual attractiveness of the individual in order to gain courtship advantage, which leads to greater reproductive success.
How does the SRY gene control sexual development?
The SRY gene control sexual development by producing a regulatory protein the initiates male sexual development through the stimulation of testosterone production.
Describe the three general competing mechanism used by male for mating
• Fighting

– Weapons

• Attraction

– Ornaments

• Coercion

– Force mating
Explain what the operational sex ratio is (OSR) and include if it is biased towards males or females.
The operational sex ratio is the ratio between sexually receptive males to sexually receptive females. All sexually reproduced organisms have an OSR that is biased toward males. There are far more sexually receptive males than females at any one point in time. This reflects a situation of supply and demand. The males must compete with each other for a small number of receptive females leaving the females with the choice of mate.