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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Topology
the way that networks are arranged, constructed and connected
Node
an endpoint or switching point in a group of devices that can communicate with each other
telecommunications
communications via electronic, electromagnetic or photonic means over a distance.
Telecommunications gives you 4 things:
-shared resources
-act centrally when decentrally located
-communication
-shared information
Point to Point
a simple network in which both nodes are computers
Physical topology
how wires are run from node to node
Electrical topology
how the network operates as a result of protocol and central node connectivity
channel
a communications path between nodes
LAN (local area network)
connectivity among two or more nodes closely located, and connecting people within an organization; are privately owned and are not regulated
WAN (wide area network)
networks that cover wide geographical areas. go beyond cities and extend globally. the next extreme is a GAN (global)
Network Interface Card (NIC)
a circuit card in a microcomputer that provides the electrical interface to a network
hub
passive device that provides a central point of contact for a network. it connects the nodes with shared bandwidth
switch
active device that provides a central point of contact for a network; it connects the nodes and provides dedicated bandwidth
Packet
unit of digital data with a set number of bytes including some that act as an address code.
protocol
standard that governs interaction; an agreed upon format for transmitting data between two devices
Physical Topology
the way the cabling ofa network is actually laid out
Electrical Topology
how the network operates as a result of protocol and central node connectivity
UPS
device that protects from power surges and continues providing power in case of short-term power outages
bus network
multipoint network w/ no master/slave. all nodes are equal but one may have NOS on it
ring network
a network where each node is connected to two adjacent nodes. token passing protocol is used (802.5)
star network
all circuits radiate from a central node, point to point. used in low-speed/low-cost data networks
Multistation Access Unit (MAU)
the hub in a ring network
collision
occurs when two nodes transmit at the same time
collision avoidance
a protocol that makes collisions of packets on a channel impossible; ex: CSMA/CA, token passing, polling
collision detection
the ability to detect and react to a collision of packets on a channel for ex. CSMA/CD
csma/cd
uses carrier sense to determine if the channel is quiet, collision can still occur
network
two or more nodes connected by one or more channels; consists of a pattern of paths and associated equipment
hub
network equipment that connects multiple nodes with shared bandwidth; passive device
switch
active device that provides centra point of contact for a network; connects nodes and provides dedicated bandwidth
SNMP(simple network management protocol)
allows remote devices to be managed rom a central office
bridge
intelligent devices that connect networks using same protocol allowing separation for security and congestion control
translating bridge
connect two LANs that use different data link protocols
transparent bridge
connect two LANs that use the same protocols
router
hardware or software that directs messages toward their destination, often from one network to another
gateway
intelligent device that connects networks that use different protocols, thus requiring protocol conversion
path
route between any two nodes
4 Benefits of Network
1. cost saving
2. sharing of resources
3. user interface
4. encourages management control
Physical Topology of of LAN
always a star for ease of installation and maintenance
TCP/IP
IP is responsible for moving packets of data between nodes; TCP is responsible for verifying delivery from client to server
Hierarchy of Networks
PAN
TAN
LAN
MAN
WAN
GAN
PAN
on or near the person; ex. bluetooth, earphones
LAN
homogeneous users; 1 mile radius; people within an organization; privately owned and nonregulated
MAN
city sized area; gives a city competitive advantage; ex. fiber using token-passing (FDDI)
WAN
heterogeneous users; widely dispersed; can extend globally; requires intermediary machines; extreme of WAN is GAN
VAN
special form of WAN; offers added intelligence like speed translation & data handling; Nonregulated
Data Transmission Forms
Synchronous & Asynchronous
Synchronous
block of data based; send a group of characters at a time, called a packet
Asynchronous
character based; sends a character at a time
Asynchronous error checking
Uses parity bits at end of 8bit string, Pbit contains 0 or 1 to make the addition of all bits = even. if odd, the data has been corrupted
Synchronous data packet
composed of header, data/body, and trailer (w/ BCC data for error checking)
Synchronous packet picture
[Header|data characters|Trailer(w/BCC)]
Integrity
if the data that was transmitted has not been corrupted by noise
page of text
2000 characters
Cyclical Redundancy Checking
synchronous data error checking; divides data by constant "K" and places remainder in BCC field. This number is recreated when received to make sure data is not corrupt
Data Channel Reliability
1. noise free channel
2. good error detection
3. correct and retransmit bad data
4. redundancy in data to self correct
Network Attributes
RAPS
R- reliability
A-accessibilitiy
P-performance
S-security
RTR
resiliency through redundancy is what we ultimately want out of our network, given we have the RAPS attributes
Power for Network Equipment attributes
CARW
C-continuity 24*7
A-accessibility
R-regulation
W-waveform
convergence
is the bringing together of two or more technologies; ex. video and text; major cause of need for greater bandwidth
need for bandwidth growth each year
300%
Industry convergence
video, data, voice
Compression
reduction of hte size of a file or stream, resulting in less required bandwidth
DSL
technology that provides digital communications over twisted pair copper
ADSL
digital technology on POTS lines providing high bandwidth; circuit is digitized and divided into telephone and one or more digital channels
Carr's Axiom
You can do a lot with a little!
How you can do a lot with a little
-convergence drives bandwidth
-compression reduces need
-simple data/text is low bandwidth
-always include future growth when installing
-limited bandwidth may suffice when installing
T1 Bandwidth
1.544 Mbps; 24 DS0 channels
convergence
combination of two or more media, such as text video; driving force behind bandwidth
DS0 Bandwidth
64Kbps
ISP (internet service provider)
retail point of access to the Internet backbone, Company who privdes Internet access to users.
broadband
transmission equipment and media that can support a wide bandwidth.
ISDN (integrated services digital network)
Digital switching and transmission systems with high data rate channels, high speed and high quality using digital. digital telephone, composed of multiple channels
ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line)
digital technology on POTS lines providing high bandwidth; circuit is digitized and divided into one or more data and telephone channels
PDN (packet data network)
provides connectivity to many points geographically; uses virtual circuits and datagrams
PAD (packet assembler/disassembler)
device that receives the total data block; break it into packets adds addressing; error-checking; places the packet onto network
X.25
a standard for packet-switched networks
BISDN (broadband integrated services data network)
ISDN above T1 that has ISDN specific services; use of 2 broadband technologies SONET and ATM to provide high bandwidth connectivity
Frame relay
an ISDN frame-mode service based upon fast packet switching.
STS1/OC1
51.84 Mbps;
SONET (Synchronous optical network)
high-speed, high reliability serial digital transmission over optical fiber cable
ATM (asynchronous transfer mode)
switching technology used by BISDN. connects cells at very high speeds. can have 5 byte header and 48 byte payload
Internet means
connectivity; a network of networks
WWW
interface; the graphical user interface to the internet
hyptertext
text with pointer to other text and media
hypermedia
involves images, sound, animation in addition to text
tags
commands inserted to specify how the document should be formatted
SGML (standard generalized makrup language)
a system for organizing and tagging elements ofa document.
HTML
authoring language that is used like a word processor to created documents on the WWW
XML
pared down version of SGML, allows authors to customize tags, enabling definitions.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
the software capability that provides the graphical users interface for the WWW
MAE (metropolitan area ethernet)
major access point to the Internet backbone (east, west and central)
URL (uniform resrouce locator)
global addresses of documents and other resources on the WWW
intranet
private implementation of internet technologies within an organization
Demands of Business Today
1. shortened product lifecycles
2. increased cost pressures
3. quality and customer service
4. changing markets
5. new business models
MIME (multipurpose internet mail extensions)
an Internet Standard for the format of e-mail
Reasons Internet have had a dramatic impact on Business
PURCS
P-performance
U-universal communication
R-reliability
C-cost
S-standards
E commerce
links enterprises, consumers, and communities through electronic transactions, and the electronic and physical exchange of goods, services , info and capital
portal
a web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and services from a single point of entry
authentication
process of determining whether someone/thing is infact what it declares itself to be
authorization
ability to determine if the person accessing is allowed to do so
clarity of interface
users understand and are comfortable with the interface
security
ensures that neither the user nor anyone else can inappropriately access, view, copy, change or destroy data in the system.
privacy
added security provided for assets, especially information of a personal nature