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75 Cards in this Set

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When did the Defense Department found ARPA?
In 1958, after the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik in 1957.
What does ARPA stand for?
Advanced Research Projects Agency
When was ARPANET developed and when did it go into operation?
ARPANET was developed in the late 1960's and went into operation in 1969 when the first node went live at UCLA.
What was the IPTO and who headed it?
Information Processing Technology Office created by ARPA before ARPANET; headed by Licklider
Who did Licklider recruit to head a project to impliment a network?
Lawrence Roberts
Who's study did Roberts base the technology on? What did the study reccomend?
Paul Baron; He wrote an extensive study for the US Air Force that reccomended packet switching instead of circuit switching
When did ARPANET go international and who did it connect?
1973 when it connected the University College of London (England) and the Royal Radar Establishment in Norway
What is IP?
Internet Protocol - data oriented protocol used for communicating data over a packet switched network
What is TCP?
Transmission Control Protocol - guarantees reliable and inorder delivery of data from sender to reciever
When was the first TCP/IP operational?
January 1, 1983
What were other protocols created as part of the TCP/IP?
Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Early desktop workstations were equipped with was operating system?
UNIX which included IP networking software
What is the NSF?
National Science Foundation
When did the NSF found NSFNet?
1985
What NSFNet establish in the late 1980's?
Five supercomputing centers
Who operated NSFNet on behalf of NSF starting in 1987?
Merit Network
When was NSFNet officially retired?
1995
What is CERN?
Corporation for Educational Research and Networking
Who started creating HTML, HTTP, and a few web pages at CERN?
Tim Berners-Lee
When did CERN publicize the new World Wide Web project?
August 6, 1991
What was an early popular web browser?
ViolaWWW
What replaced ViolaWWW?
Mosaic in 1993
Who created CSNet and when?
Created by the US National Science Foundation in 1981. It was an alternate to ARPANET and forerunner to NSFNet. It linked academic computer science networks worldwide.
Who did CSNet merge with to form CREN and what year?
CSNet merged with Bitnet in 1989
When were CSNet services discontinued?
CREN discontinued CSNet services in 1991.
What did Marc Anderson and Jim Clark start and introduce?
They started Netscape Communications in 1994 and introduced the Navigator web browser
What year was Mosaic discontinued?
1997
What is ISOC?
Internet Society was founded in 1992 and is a private, non-profit group that oversees the Internet
What is IAB?
Internet Activites Board founded in 1983 serves as technology advisorygroup to ISOC. They set policy and make decisions on architecture.
What is IETF?
Internet Engineering Task Force founded in 1986 sets technical standards for the Internet - primarilly for TCP?IP
What is IRTF?
Internet Research Task Force founded in 1986 includes dozens of working groups on network-related topics
What is Network Solutions, Inc?
They now own Bellcore and once had a government sanctioned monopoloy on domain registration - InterNIC, Inc.
What does the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) do?
They allow over 100 private companies to oversee domain registration
What are the six original domains?
.com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .org, .net
What are the seven new domains?
.info,.biz, .name, .pro, .museum, .coop, .aero
What is modern networking built on the concept of?
Layers of service
What are packet switched networks?
Information goes into a packet, packets are addressed and sent, collection points have more and more volume, gets sorted out where it needs to be sorted, individual packets arrive at their destinations, linesare used efficiently by many users at once

(Compared to a post office)
What type of switching does the phone system use?
Circuit Switching
What is IP?
Internet Protocol - deals with connecting to the internet
What layer is IP at of the OSI?
It is at the third layer of the Open Systems Interconnect standard
What are the three main functions of IP?
Keep track of addresses, route outgoing messages, recognize incoming messages
What is connected by routers?
Numerous compatible and incompatible networks
What do routers do?
They read packet addresses and choose best route for the data
What are protocols?
rules that govern use of the net
What do protocols do?
Address the packet and tell the router how to send the packet
What are characteristics of packets?
They carry the address of its source and recipient, consist of 1 to 1500 characters, arrive out of order, may get lost in transmission
What is TCP?
Transmission Control Protocol - layers four and five of the OSI
What does TCP do?
Breaks data into packets, addresses them, and numbers them for reordering after transmission
What does TCP do on reception?
Strips the headers and reorders the packets
What if data is missing or damaged?
TCP asks for retransmission
What is UDP?
User Datagram Protocol used for simple messages (email). It is easier to set up and operate and the entire message is retransmitted if there is a problem
What are some graphical browsers?
Mosaic, Netscape Navigator
When was WWW created?
In the early 1990's by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN
What is a browser?
A program that reads and displays a hypertext document wich is accessed via its Uniform Resource Locater (URL)
What is hypertext?
a method of electronically linking files to other files on your computer or elsewhere
What is HTML?
Hypertext Markup Language - the code for formatting pages and creating links
What is XML?
eXtensible Markup Language - likely successor to HTML b/c it allows customizable added functionality important for database interfaces and transactions
What is a Superhighway?
Integrated broadband-network infrastructure delivering a wide range of digital, fully interactive, multimedia services direcctly to homes, workplaces, institutions, and public places
What are the rams to the Superhighway?
Telephone, computer, TV
What are two approaches for secure online transactions?
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)protocol - encrypts personal financial information

Electronic or "cyber-dollar" methods - consumers buy encrypted "coins" or "tokens" and makes purchases totally anonymous
What is a cookie?
Data placed on hard drive by a website that tracks users information
What is web tracking?
Detailed examination of web server logs
What is an internet passport?
Technology that allows users to control what information will be released to websites and what information will be collected about their surfing
What are the three main passport technologies?
P3P, ICE, and OPS
What is ASCII?
American Standard Code for Information Interchange - the most common digital standard
What are the components of a network?
Terminals and workstations, transmission links, transmission methods - protocols, nodes and switches, network architecture
What is LAN?
Local Area Network
What is MAN?
Metropolitan Area Network
What is WAN?
Wide Area Private Network
What is PSTN?
Public Voice Network
What is PDNs?
Public Data Networks
What is VANs?
Value-added Networks
What is VPNs?
Virtual Private Networks
What is a switch?
Computers or microprocessors that direct information streams over alternative paths
What is a node?
A functional unit conncecting transmission lines - usually contains one or more switches