Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
taste buds
-microvilli containing taste receptor proteins

-stem cell underneath for formation of new taste receptor cells
gustatory nerve to brain
-tongue > brainstem > thalamus > insula and/or somatosensory cortex

-tongue > brainstem > hypothalamus and/or amygdala
insula, somatosensory cortex
Insula - interprets taste

Somatosensory cortex - interprets texture
sweet receptor
-there are two (2) GPCRs for sweet, they detect sucrose
-made in 1879, it is 500x sweeter than sucrose

-leave a slightly bitter, metallic aftertaste

chemical structure is NOTHING like sucrose

-180x sweeter
-discovered in 1969 when searching for an ulcer medicine

-dipeptide of aspartate and phenylalanine
-peptides are unstable in heat, stable in acidic environments

-200x sweeter
-discovered in 1967
-600x sweeter
-replaces three OH- groups with Cl-
Stevia, stevoside
Stevia rebaudiana (it's a leaf, damnit)
-300x sweeter

-stevoside is the chemical that tastes sweet.
umami, glutamate, amino acids
-Umami - delicious
-MSG activates umami because of glutamate-ness. seriously.

-Also responds to other amino acids and powdered yeasts; trichloronic acid, shitake and oyster mushroom
sugarcane history
Started in Asia and the South Pacific

Moved to the Mediterranean in about 1000AD

Columbus brought it to the Caribbean
Capsaicin, chili
Capsicum annum - chili peppers
-is the hot quality in chili
-chili peppers are from the Americas
thermal receptors, TRP channels
-receptors that activate with heat or hot foods

-Transient Receptor Potential is a chain of amino acids
-channels that are opened both by spicy foods and heat
-Heat: Calcium flows in and depolarizes the channel
activates cold TRPs
ginger, wasabi, horseradish, mustard, garlic, etc.
Things that are spicy without capsaicin
Essential Oil
The aromatic component from roots and leaves of plants, extracted by distillation
dissolve and heat, repeat.

may lose some molecules that won't dissolve or those that are damaged by heat
solvent extraction of scent for hydrophobic materials (like using hexane.)

solvent evaporates, leaving pomade (waxy substance)
using another solvent to dissolve away the waxy stuff. This is essential oil.

no heating, no loss.
geraniol / geranial, indole, methanethiol / ethanethiol, asparagusic acid, dimethyl sulfide
-geraniol - rose scent (the alcohol version)
-geranial - lemon scent (the aldehyde version)

-indole - looks like 5HT-2A, smells like shit.

-methanethiol - in stove gas
-ethanethiol - stinkiest thing ever
-butanethiol - skunk (christen love)

-dimethyl sulfide - just some other stinky molecule
anosmia: general vs. specific
general - loss of all olfactory reception

specific - loss of a particular smell
olfactory epithelium, olfactory receptor cells, olfactory receptor proteins
-olfactory epithelium detects the airborne stuffs that go into da nose

-receptor cells are GPCRs, mammals ~1000, humans ~350 functional ones, mice have ~1100 functional ones
olfactory bulbs, olfactory system pathway
-pencil-shaped things under the frontal lobe

-Nose > olfactory bulbs > thalamus > cerebral cortex
-nose > olfactory bulbs > limbic system (emotional response)
pheromones, androstadienone
-pheromones are the olfactory chemical communication within a species

-androstadienone is sex juice
vomeronasal pathway
pheromone pathway, not clear in humans. That's why humans don't have pheromones
detect pressure
body map: somatosensory homunculus
Synonymous. Wilder Penfield discovered it by poking peoples brains.
frontal section and saggital section
A way of viewing the brain. -Frontal means it faces forward if sliced

-sagittal are parallel to the sagittal suture and perpendicular to the coronal sections

-coronal is horizontal; across crown
S1 brain localization and information flow in somatosensory cortex
anterior of the parietal lobe, shaped like a little person
S1 Lesions
-produces loss of feeling, sensation
neglect syndrome and other sensory weirdness
it's when you ignore half the body, you may not even realize you're doing it
primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor areas
-Posterior frontal lobe
-responsible for movement

-Supplementary is used for planning the movement before the actual signal is sent
M1 lesion
lesion in supplementary motor areas, problem with organization of movement
interconnectivity between secondary somatosensory areas and prefrontal motor areas
it happens.
mirror neuron
frontal lobe neurons are active during movement AND during observation of movement
frontal lobe / parietal lobe lesion
-leads to paralysis and somatosensory weirdness.

If it's on the right hemisphere, it will be anosognosia - denial of illness
Freudian psychological defenses
distortions of reality to reduce anxiety

denial, rationalization, rejection, rationalization

anosognosia is an exaggeration of these defenses
left/right hemisphere difference
LH Stroke - depression

RH stroke - people rarely get depressed
Broca's aphasia
-Problem with production of language

-Left frontal lobe lesion
-apraxia for language - "organizing" movements. Can make sounds but not words or sentences
Wernicke's aphasia
-Problem understanding written and spoken language

-Left posterior/parietal lobe lesion
cerebral lateralization of language, Wada test
-Juhn Wada - 1949

Gave a barbiturate directly into someone's carotid artery and had them count.

Most people stopped counting when it was injected into the right side (left hemisphere), so that's where the spoken language center of the brain is

Left carotid just makes people feel drunk, but they can still count
language processing: A1, Wernicke’s area, Broca’s area
A1- Primary auditory cortex

-sounds that are language go to A1 and Wernicke's

-Language that has meaning goes to A1, Wernicke's, and Broca's areas
corpus commissurotamy studies
-Split brain patients in the 1960's

-If the spoon is in the right visual field, people can identify the spoon

-If the spoon is in the left visual field, they wouldn't be able to say what they saw, but their right hand could choose something to go along with it
left and right hemisphere functions
-Visual detail
-Sequential Analytic Processing

-nonverbal, linguistic
-3-D, spatial
-visual geshtalt
-Harmony, timbre
-holistic parallel processing
Albert Einstein’s brain abnormalities
-superior prefrontal and inferior parietal lobes
-Very high neuron to glia ratios
efference copy
commands leave an "image" of themselves somewhere in the brain so that they can be accessed later