Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What are the differences between ROM, RAM, and virtual memory?
RAM (Read Only Memory) is read/write memory and is volatile memory that needs constant power to maintain its content.
ROM (Random Access Memory) is read-only memory and permanently stores instructins and data.
Virtual memory is provided by the operating system(OS) and is an extension of physical memory
What functions do caching, buffering, and prediction perform in computers? What are some of the differences between the three concepts?
Caching is high speed memory storage and Buffering holds data temporarily in order to match difference device speeds. Predictions (branch) look ahead in the pipeline and predicts the result of a branch.
Describe what happens in a computer from turning on the power switch to the point of launching of the operating system. Particularly distinguish between the BIOS and the CMOS.
When a PC is turned on, the processor first looks at the system BIOS (basic input/output system) to determine the system’s configuration and environment. The CMOS retains that data when power is turned off.
Discuss the differences and similarities between scripts and programs, and interpreters and compilers. Give examples
Compilers is a software tool that converts source code into a format that can run only with the assistance of an OS. Interpreters are a software tool that converts source code into instructions the computer can understand. Scripts are a list of commands that can be executed without user interaction. Programs are an organized list of instructions that, when executed, causes the computer to behave in a predetermined manner
Briefly identify the following people and describe their contributions:
„X Charles Babbage Difference Engine, a mechanical device to perform simple mathematical calculations
„X George Boole establish modern symbolic logic. algebra of logic, called Boolean algebra or Boolean logic, a two-valued system in which objects are divided into separate classes given one of two properties, is essential to the design of modern digital computer circuits.
„X Herman Hollerith invented computer punch cards
„X Grace Hopper first programmer developed the first compiler, A-0, which translated symbolic mathematical code into machine code
„X Gordon Moore Co-founded Intel Corporation and authored Moore's Law, which predicts that the number of transistors that the industry would be able to place on a computer chip would double every year.
„X Claude Shannon symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits (dissertation)
„X Tim Berners-Lee Invented the World Wide Web
„X Marc Andreessen. Cofounder of Netscape Communications
8. Discuss the following four concepts as they relate to the hard drive:
„X Defragmentation To optimize a disk by unfragmenting files
„X Optimization means the same as defragmentation and In programming, to fine-tune a program so that it runs more quickly or takes up less space.
„X disk compression A type of data compression that works by storing compressed versions of files on the hard disk
„X FAT (or VFAT) is File allocation Table is A table that the operating system uses to locate files on a disk
What are the differences between flash ROM and flash RAM?
Flash ROM, sometimes called flash RAM or flash memory, stores data much like the EEPROM but uses a super-voltage charge to erase a block of data (rather than a byte). Flash ROM and EEPROM can perform read/write operations, but can only be erased a certain number of times.
What does the acronym DSL mean? How does it work?
Digital Subscriber Line, which provides a dedicated digital circuit between a residence and a telephone company’s central office, allowing high-speed data trasportation over existing twisted copper telephone lines.
How do broadband cable modems work? Are they actually “modems”?
No… broadband cable modems are not modems. Broadband cables work because of bandwidth which has the capacity to carry so many words, images and video to your computer.
What are the functions of a protocol? Name at least three.
FTP-TCP-IP and the functions of them..... which are to breakup
data into packets and synchronize sending them back and forth
What are the differences between the system bus, front side bus, processor bus, data bus, address bus, and the I/O or external bus? Are some of these buses the same bus? How are they synchronized?
The system bus is the circuits that connect all the components with each other to be sure they all are functioning. The address bus is a collection of wires connecting the CPU with main memory that is used to identify particular locations (addresses) in main memory. The Data bus is the bus used to carry data. The Front side Bus is the bus via which a processor communicates with its RAM and chipset one half of the Dual Independent Bus, the other half being the backside bus. I/O or external bus is a bus that connects a computer to peripheral devices.
Name four functions or stages the CPU performs, and the purpose of each. Explain pipelining in the context of these four functions
Fetch, = asking for info from an address Decode = decides what to do with the information , Execute = actions occur (comparing, adding, multiplying…) and Store = once the action is complet (put in registers). Pipeline is the path that instructions follow through the CPU which are variations of the above.
How do the refresh rate, the resolution, and the number of colors work together to contribute to the visual display on the monitor?
Refresh rate re-draws the screen image, signals sent determine the resolution and the 3 primary colors RGB make all the other colors possible.
What are some of the differences between DRAM, SRAM, ECC RAM, DDR SDRAM, and RDRAM
DRAM (Dynamic Ram) loses its data without being refreshed and so is different than static RAM. SRAM (Static RAM) can hold data without being refreshed. ECC RAM (Error Correction Code RAM) is capable of detecting and correcting one-bit errors. DDR SDRAM is (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory) Data is read on both the rising and the falling edge of the computer clock, thereby delivering twice the bandwidth of standard SDRAM. With DDR SDRAM, memory speed doubles without increasing the clock frequency. RDRAM is Rambus DRAM is a revolutionary type of DRAM that uses a 16-18 bit data path and is designed to operate with FSB speed of 800MHz, producing a burst transfer rate of 1.6 gigahertz.
How do viruses work? What should be done if the workstation is infected?
A Viruses is a set of instructions (a program) that tells the PC to execute a series of actions with out the owners consent or knowledge. Viruses load themselves into memory and take control of the OS and attach themselves to executable files. Disconnect the PC from the network and run an antivirus software to locate the virus to quarantine or delete it.
What does the operating system do? What does the kernel of an OS do?
Creates a common platform for all the software you use. The kernel calls the routines it needs to perform some task.
Describe some of the ways digital signals are better than analog signals (amplitude, frequency and phase modulations – define each). How does sampling work?
Digital signs/systems are ones in which translate all of the information it works with to numbers(binary). Analog uses a representation of information (good for carrying information but not changing or modifying it.)