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98 Cards in this Set

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Be familiar with the indications for using a slit lamp, and what patient conditions it is especially useful for.
Foreign body exam and removal, Ulcers, Abrasions, Keratitic precipitants (KP), Acute red eye conditions
Familiarize yourself with tonometry, in terms of: Indication:
It is an important test in the evaluation of ocular conditions such as glaucoma as well conditions such as phthisis bulbi, and iritis
Familiarize yourself with tonometry, in terms of: Eye anatomy being examined:
One can often see the lens with a slit lamp, but viewing beyond this structure is difficult. The slit lamp is therefore best used for anterior segment inspection. Not for the posterior chamber.
Familiarize yourself with tonometry, in terms of: Purpose
tonometry is the procedure eye care professionals perform to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP), the fluid pressure inside the eye
TECH SKILLS COMPLETE FOR WINTER QUARTER
TECH SKILLS COMPLETE FOR WINTER QUARTER
Define Radiograph
the making of film(digital) records of internal structures of the body by passing x-rays or gamma rays through the body to act on specially sensitized film.
Define Posteroanterior (PA)
directed from the back toward the front
Define Anteroposterior (AP)
directed from the front toward the back. AP means that the x-ray beam passes through the chest or other anatomic site from anterior to posterior or from front to back
Define Film Density - sometimes called optical density, radiographic density or simply density,
It's the degree of blackening or clear area of a radiograph which represents low optical density and as black area represents high optical density.
Know the radiographic views commonly obtained and how the patient is positioned
The common radiographic views obtained are referred to as posteroanterior (PA), anteroposterior (AP), oblique, and lateral views
Know what causes a structure to appear black, white, or gray on radiograph
It's the density of an object being imaged that determines how much of the x-ray beam will be absorbed or attenuated. Lower the density, darker it is
Be able to describe the basic theory behind each of the diagnostic imaging modalities: Ultrasound
it emits high-frequency sound waves, ranging 1-10 MHz, these are alternately broadcast into the pt by a transducer and some of the reflected sound waves from body tissues are intermittently received by the transducer, the sound waves may be absorbed, deflected, or reflected
Be able to describe the basic theory behind each of the diagnostic imaging modalities: CT
examines the body in slices, the patient is on a table that is fed into the opening in the tube gantry and the x-ray tube moves around the patient to create an image
Be able to describe the basic theory behind each of the diagnostic imaging modalities: MRI
short bursts of radiofrequency waves are broadcast into the patient from the radio transmitters causing protons to line up, after the transmitter is turned off, protons realign themselves again which continue to resonate and broadcast radio waves that can be detected by a radio wave receiver
Know the common indications/applications and contraindications for the use of Ultrasound
ind/app: obstetrics, pediatric brain, testicle and prostate, female pelvis, chest for pleural fluid drainage, abdomen (kidney, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder), vascular disease: contra: not good for bone and lung imaging, operator dependent
Know the common indications/applications and contraindications for the use of CT
ind/app: trauma, intracranial hemorrhage abdominal injury (esp organs), fx detection and evaluation, spine alignment, foreign bodies, dx of primary and secondary neoplasms (liver, renal, brain, lung, and bone), tumor staging
Know the common indications/applications and contraindications for the use of MRI
ind/app: multiple plane images, good contrast, no known health hazards, good for soft tissue injuries, ankle, and shoulder joints.
contra: preg unless an emergency, cerebral aneurysms, cardiac pacemakers, inner ear implants, metallic foreign bodies in and around the eyes
Know the circumstances under which you would order a MRI with contrast, and what structures you are trying to evaluate
imaging tumors, infections, and acute stroke
Know the circumstances under which you would order a CT with contrast, and what structures you are trying to evaluate
liver, kidney, brain for primary and secondary neoplasm-oral contrast to delineate the contrast filled GI tract from other abdomen structures
Know the circumstances under which you would order a CT without contrast, and what structures you are trying to evaluate
intracerebral hemorrhage, suspected fracture, evaluating a fracture fragment within a joint, kidney stones
Define AP radiograph;
Common radiographic views obtained are referred to as anteroposterior (AP)
Define PA radiograph;
Common radiographic views obtained are referred to as posteroanterior (PA)
Define Lateral chest radiograph;
Common radiographic views obtained are referred to as lateral
Define expiratory chest radiograph
demonstrates decreased aeration and positioning of the ninth rib. If the domes of the diaphragm only reach the 7th rib or higher, it's considered hypoinflated and can lead to misdiagnosis of basilar pneumonia or cardiomegaly
Define COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
umbrella term for a group of resp diseases characterized by airflow obstruction or limitation.
Define Visceral pleura;
A portion of the serous membrane covers the surface of the lung and dips into the fissures between its lobes; it is called the pulmonary pleura (or visceral pleura).
Define Thoracic aortic aneurysm;
general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location.
Define Pulmonary edema;
swelling and/or fluid accumulation in lungs. leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure.
Define Mediastinum;
non-delineated group of structures in the thorax surrounded by loose connective tissue. It contains the heart, the great vessels of the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and lymph nodes of the central chest
Define Cardiac silhouette
outline margin of the heart on CXR from the differences in densities
Define Hemidiaphragm
one half of the diaphragm
Define Costophrenic angles
the angle on the lateral border of the CXR where the diaphragm and ribs meet.
Define Cardiomegaly
Hypertrophy of the heart.
Define Pneumothorax
air or gas in the pleural space
Define Pneumomediastinum
presence of air or gas in tissues of the mediastinum.
Define Meniscus sign
a crescent shaped inclusion of air surrounded by consolidated lung tissue common cause is aspergilloma.
Define Silhouette sign
the difference in densities of two objects, facilitates the detection and location of water density pathology
Define Air bronchogram
air in the bronchus forming a silhouette on CXR
Define Atelectasis
Incomplete expansion of the lungs
Define Pneumonia
Inflammation of the lungs with exudation and consolidation
Define Infiltrate
The diffusion or accumulation in a tissue or cells of substances not normal to it or in amounts in excess of the normal; also, the material so accumulated
Define AP upright radiograph in reference to abd XR:
Useful in searching for free intraperitoneal air and /or intestinal air-fluid levels
Define AP supine abdomen radiograph in reference to abd XR:
The most frequently performed abdominal imaging study
Define Left Lateral Decubitus radiograph in reference to abd XR::
Replaces upright AP radiograph if pt cannot stand. Can be lying on either Rt or Lt side but Lt is preferable.
Define KUB:
Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder. Requires that these structures be in film
Define Abdominal plain film:
No artificially introduced contrast substances are used.
Define Once-over glance:
Glance at the entire radiograph in a relaxed manner to allow an obvious abnormality to jump out at you.
Define Psoas shadows:
In the normal radiograph, psoas muscle margins are usually visible. A nonvisible psoas margin should alert you to a possible abnormality
Define Renal contours and position:
Renal shadows are visible cause they are water density structures surrounded by variable amounts of fat. If renal long axis is not parallel with psoas muscle margin, you should consider a mass or other abnormality
Define Abdominal calcifications:
Look for calcifications (white) in the abdomen, especially in the region of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and the gallbladder
Define Intestinal gas pattern:
Intestinal gas provides a natural contrast media that can be useful for detecting abdominal disease. There is normally some air or gas in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum
Define Ileus:
also called adynamic ileus and paralytic ileus. Too much bowel gas in the entire GI tract, including the small and large intestines. May result from intraabdominal causes or as a reflex phenomenon from disease elsewhere
Define Small bowel obstruction:
Loops of dilated small bowel proximal to the obstruction site and little or no gas in the colon or the rectum
Define Air-fluid levels:
In both ileus and obstruction, often the dilated small and large bowel containing too much air will have air-fluid levels noted on upright and decubitus radiographs
Define Sigmoid volvulus:
occurs mostly in elderly pts with long hx of constipation. chronic constipation results in redundant sigmoid mesentery with potential to twist on itself like a garden hose.
Define Free intraperitoneal air:
any process that perforates the intestinal tract. AP supine & upright abd XR should be performed. upright position allows free intraperitoneal air to rise to the subdiaphragmatic regions of the abd
Define Pneumoperitoneum:
gas in the peritoneal space. From ruptured intestines
Define Pneumatosis intestinalis:
air in the bowel wall
Define Barium:
Contrast material. If only barium used then single contrast study. If barium and air are used then double contrast study
Define Urolithiasis:
Stone in the urinary system
Define Renal calculi:
synonymous with urolithiasis. Calculi can occur at any location in the urinary tract
Define Phleboliths:
Small intravenous stones secondary to calcified thrombi
Define Appendolith:
Just like it sounds, a stone (calculi) in the appendix
List steps in viewing an abdominal radiograph:
1.Once-over glance
2.Liver and spleen
3.Psoas shadows
4.Renal contours and position
5.Abdominal calcifications
6.Intestinal gas pattern
7.Bones
Identify Normal Gas patterns:
Small amount of air in stomach and colon may be filled with air or fluid. Small intestine usually little or no air. Distal half of colon usually contains air
What might cause too much bowel gas:
Ileus or bowel obstruction: refried beans or broccholi, teenage boys also more prone :)
What might cause too little bowel gas:
Enlarge abdom. Organs Tumor in abdomen, Fluid in intestines Gastroenteritis
What might cause gas in the wrong places
Pneumoperitoneum, Abscess, Pneumatosis intestinalis
Know the Abdominal densities/calcifications of Renal calculi:
85% are opaque
15% are lucent
Know the Abdominal densities/calcifications of Gallstones:
15% are opaque
85% are lucent
Know the Abdominal densities/calcifications of Pleboliths:
Normal finding
Know the Abdominal densities/calcifications of Appendolith:
Commonly found as cause of appendicitis. Aids in diagnosing appendicitis
Know the Abdominal densities/calcifications of Uterine fibroids:
Can be (if calcified) recognized on abdominal radiograph
Define Oblique:
An angulated fracture line
Define Transverse:
A fracture line that is perpendicular to the bone.
Define Spiral:
A multi-planar and complex fracture line
Define Overriding:
the overlap of two completely displaced fragments
Define Distraction:
A fracture in which the distal fragment is separated from the proximal fragment by a gap
Define Torus:
A buckle fracture of one cortex, often seen in children - or a car
Define Greenstick
incomplete cortical fracture characterized by cortical disruption and periosteal tearing on the convex side of the bone with intact periosteum on the concave side of fx
Define Comminuted:
More then two fracture fragment
Define Non displaced:
A fracture in which the fragments are in anatomic alignment
Define Angulated:
A fracture in which the fragments are misaligned
Define Offset or displaced:
A fracture in which the fragments are no longer in their usual alignment
Define Stress fracture
“fatigue” fx as resulting from uncustomary repetitive forces before the bone & supporting tissues have had adequate time to accommodate such forces
Define Avulsion fracture:
A fracture that occurs when a ligament or tendon pulls off a sliver of bone
Define Epiphysis:
part of long bone developed from a center of ossification distinct from that of the shaft and separated at first from the latter by a layer of cartilage
Define Metaphysis:
The broad portion of a long bone adjacent to a joint. In children, the broad portion of a long bone includes the epiphysis, the physis, and the metaphysis
Describe Indications for casts and splints:
1. Tx simple, acute nondisplaced fxs 2. Immobilize dislocation post-reduction 3. Tx soft tissue injuries, such as ligament sprains and muscle strains
List indications and contraindications for splinting and casts
Immobilization is necessary for comfort and healing after fx and beneficial in short term after soft tissue injury. Long periods immobilization cause disuse atrophy and stiffness in the affected limb
Know the materials needed to apply and remove plaster and fiberglass extremity casts and splints.
Stockinette, Cast Padding, Cast material, Large basin or bucket, Apron and gloves
Rigid Scissors, Cast saw and additional blades
Know the clinical applications of the following: Long arm ulnar gutter splint
maintains the elbow in flexion, usually at 90 degrees, upper extremity is placed in sling position, useful for elbow injuries, radial head fx, nondisplaced supracondylar humeral fx, and reduced dislocation of elbow
Know the clinical applications of the following: Short arm ulnar gutter splint
immobilizes the wrist and the ulnar or radial half of the hand. useful for fractures of the proximal phalanx of the ring or little finger or for fractures of the fourth or fifth metacarpal (including the common “boxer's fracture”)
Know the clinical applications of the following: Sugar tong splint
prevents motion of the wrist and elbow, including pronation-supination. appropriate for fxs about the wrist or distal forearm.
Know the clinical applications of the following: Thumb spica splint
immobilizes the wrist and the thumb. used for fractures of the scaphoid or for fractures of the thumb metacarpal or proximal phalanx.
Know the clinical applications of the following: “Cock-up” splint
removable device extending from distal forearm to the proximal portion of hand, maintains wrist in dorsiflexed position. Good for tendinitis or for support in wrist drop due to radial nerve palsy
Know the clinical applications of the following: Posterior ankle mold
plaster splint that immobilizes the ankle. used for severe sprains or fractures of the ankle
Know the clinical applications of the following: Ankle stirrup
useful for ankle sprains and for stable lateral malleolus fractures. an air padded “sugar-tong” splint held in place by Velcro straps