Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/89

Click to flip

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Matter
Is anything that takes up space and has a mass.
Mass
Is the quantity of matter an object has
Elements
Substances that can not be broken into similar types of matter
What is the smallest part of an element
An atom
Protons
Are positively charged found in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus
Neutrons
Are neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom
Electrons
Negatively charged atoms in various energy levels (orbital shells)
Chemical reaction
A dynamic event that alters the chemical make up of an atom , may cause an imbalance in the charge, resulting in excess protons or electrons
Ion
When an imbalance produces positively or negatively charged atom
What does a proton and neutron have in common
Same mass
Mass number
Is the total number of protons and neutrons found within the nucleus of an atom
Atomic mass
Is the average mass of all known isotopes of an element.
How do you get the neutron number
By taking the mass number and subtracting it by the atomic number
Charge
Refers to the positive or negative distribution in an atom
What is a charge dominated by
The number of protons and electrons
Isotopes
Atoms with the same number of protons, but different number in neutrons
Catalysts
Control the rate of chemical reactions or reactions in which atoms come to a stable state
What the reaction rates depend on
The fluency of contact with the reactants and catalysts
Substrate
Molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme
Activation energy
Catalysts increase reaction rates by lowering this... The potential barrier of products compared to reactants is reduced, resulting in a reaction path requiring less energy
The Four step process of a general reaction
1.) X + C---> XC
2.) XC + Y-->XYC
3.)XYC--> CZ
4.)CZ-->C +Z
Orbital shells
The arrangement of electrons within orbits around the nucleus
Valence electrons
Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom remain the same
Electro negativity
Measure of an atoms attraction on electrons in a chemical bond
Chemical bonding
The chemical merging of atoms due to their electron arrangements
Metals
Elements that donate highly conductive electrons to their environment
Enzymes
Act as the catalysts for special chemical reactions within the human body, found in protein molecules
Globular proteins
Proteins that are water soluble, built from amino acids that form chains
External factors that controls cell process activity of enzymes
Temperature, ph, and substrate concentration
PH
Value is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution, and a substrate is a molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme,
Metabolic pathways
Chemical reactions within a cell
Enzymes can...
Act to lower the activation energy of chemical reactions, can reshape itself when placed in contact with a substrate, and the amino acid structure of an enzyme is important
Ph scale
Measures the strength of acidic solutions (solutions with a ph less than 7) and basic solutions (greater than 7). Water is neutral with a ph of 7
-stronger acids will have smaller value, and stronger bases will have a greater value
Ph indicator
Used to qualitatively determine the ph
Ionic
The electrical attraction between ions of opposite charge
Covalent
Sharing of electrons between atoms
Hydrocarbons are...
Methane, propane, and butane bond to hydrogen to carbon atoms
Hydrocarbons subdivided into
Saturated and unsaturated categories
Alkanes: saturated hydrocarbons
Basic structure, composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated, with hydrogen.
Formula: is CnH2n+2t
Saturated
Carbon is completely connected
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms, they permit the attachment of other atoms to the unbonded carbon atoms within the molecule
Alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons with double bonds, CnH2n
Alkynes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain triple bonds, CnH2n-3
Organic chemistry
Connected with the study of hydrocarbon structure
Metalloids
Are elements that may accept or donate electrons readily, and possess a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties
Cation (metallic ion)
Positive ion
Anion(nonmetallic)
A negative ion
Ionic bonds
Complete one another by the donation and acceptance of electrons to form stable outer electron shells. Ex. Table salt
Covalent bonds
Is a form of chemical bonding that involves electron sharing between atoms, valence electrons are being shared to form a stable outer shell for both atoms. Greatest between atoms of similar electro negativity
Electro negatives
Similar attractions for electrons
Lewis Structures
Provide visual representations of covalent bonding between atoms or a molecule. The atoms are symbolically shown and surrounded by dots that represent each of the valence electrons. The dots are arranged such that molecules is shown to have atoms in the most completely filled shell configuration of paired electrons
Balancing chemical equations
Reactions must be balanced according to atomic number and charge. The goal is to make sure that their are equal numbers of each atom on the reactant side and the product side
Reactants
Formulas on the left side of the reaction side, are substances that have been consumed or altered
Products
Are located on the right side of the reaction side, there are the substances formed
Subscripts
Formulas where equations have small numbers, they indicate how many atoms of an element are in the formula
Oxidation reduction and acid base reactions
Involve the donation and acceptance of electrons
Oxidation
Involves electron domination to produce a more positive ion
Reduction
Involves electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion
Oxidation reduction reactions
Combustion, photosynthesis, metabolism
Metabolism
Refers to the chemical reaction in living organisms that area nessacary to maintain life
Light years
The distance that light traveled within one year of time
Electromagnetic waves
Are waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields
Work
The results of any change in energy
Joules or calories
Work is quantified in units of the metric system
(KE) kinetic energy
Energy of motion, any increase in an objects velocity
(PE) potential energy
The amount of stored energy in an object may be quantified through a calculation
Law of conservation of energy
Energy is not lost but rather transferred back and fourth between KE and PE, given an amount of total energy in the system, and increase in KE will result in a decrease in PE (vice versa) but the total amount of energy will remain the same
Water
A polar molecule of hydrogen and oxygen with oxygen possessing the higher electronegativeity
Polar molecule
A molecule that possess both positive and negative atomic structure
Electrolysis
Can chemically split the liquid water molecule into gaseous components according to the balanced equation 2H2O-->2H2+O2
Density
Is the ratio of mass per volume for a substance, water is 4 C
Celsius
Is a metric temperature scale that is defined by standard pressure by the melting point of ice 0 and the boiling point of water 100c
Kelvin Scale
Used to express temperature , scaled defined by the absolute zero reference point
Triple-point
The temperature of which water will coexist as a solid liquid or gas
Specific heat
The energy required to raise one unit of mass by substance by 1 C
High heat evaporation
E amount of heat nessacary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and a gas
Water
Polarity results in high surface tension and adhesion. Essential to metabolic process
Anabolic
Creation of larger molecules
Catabolic
Creation of smaller molecules
Temperature
Directly related to the speed of particles and pressure is the force of particle interaction over a certain area
Solid
Has a fixed shape and volume, possesses crystalline order, relatively high pressures and low temperatures
Crystalline order
Atoms are arranged in highly ordered state, a state in which atoms lack true order
Physical bonding
Physical connection between atoms or molecules, that does not alter the chemical nature of atoms
Gas
Changing volume and changing shape
Latent heat
Related to the energy needed to cause a phase transition at a fixed temperature
Heat
The flow of energy due to a difference in temperature
Evaporation
Of a liquid is often achieved due to high heat, low humidity, and fast movement surrounding air mass. It occurs by physical collisions at the surface layer of a liquid, removes the fast moving liquid molecules,there by removing nome energetic atoms from the liquid
Vaporization: phase transition
Is an alteration of a physical state between a solid, liquid and gas. This transition from a liquid to a gas takes place by breaking the physical bonds with in the liquid