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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
assimilation (enculturation)
The process of acquiring a culture; a child's acquisition of the cultural heritage through both formal and informal educational means.
bilingual education
Educational programs in which students of limited or no English-speaking ability attend classes taught in English, as well as in their native language. There is great variability in these programs in terms of goals, instructional opportunity, and balance between English and a student's native language.
cultural difference theory
This theory asserts that academic problems can be overcome if educators study and mediate the cultural gap separating school and home.
cultural pluralism
Acceptance and encouragement of cultural diversity.
culturally responsive teaching
Recognizes that students learn in different ways, and that effective teachers respond to these differences. This approach focuses on the learning strengths of students, as well as mediates the frequent mismatch between home and school cultures.
culture
A set of learned beliefs, values, and behaviors; a way of life shared by members of a society.
deficit theory
A theory that asserts that the values, language patterns, and behaviors that children from certain racial and ethnic groups bring to school put them at an educational disadvantage.
demographic forecasting
The study and predictions of people and their vital statistics.
English as a Second Language [ESL]
An immersion approach to bilingual education that removes students from the regular classroom to provide instruction in English.
English language learners (ELL)
(Also referred to as limited English proficiency or LEP.) Students whose native language is not English and who are learning to speak and write English.
ethnicity
Shared common cultural traits such as language, religion, and dress. A Latino or Hispanic, for example, belongs to an ethnic group, but might belong to the Negro, Caucasian, or Asian race.
expectation theory
First made popular by Rosenthal and Jacobson, this theory holds that a student's academic performance can be improved if a teacher's attitudes and beliefs about that student's academic potential are modified.
generalization
A broad statement about a group that offers information, clues, and insights that can help you as a teacher plan more effectively. Generalizations are a good starting point, but as the teacher learns more about the students, individual differences become more educationally significant.
immersion
This bilingual education model teaches students with limited English by using a "sheltered" or simplified English vocabulary, but teaching in English and not in the other language.
language submersion
This bilingual education model teaches students in classes where only English is spoken, the teacher does not know the language of the student, and the student either learns English as the academic work progresses or pays the consequences. This has been called a "sink or swim" approach.
multicultural education
Educational policies and practices that not only recognize but also affirm human differences and similarities associated with gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, disability, and class.
race
A group of individuals sharing common genetic attributes, physical appearance, and ancestry.
stereotype threat
A measure of how social context, such as self-image, trust in others, and a sense of belonging, can influence academic performance.
stereotypes
Absolute statements applied to all members of a group, suggesting that members of a group have a fixed, often inherited set of characteristics.
transitional approach
An approach to bilingual education that uses a student's native language as a bridge to English language instruction. Academic subjects are first taught using the native language, but students progressively transition into full English instruction.