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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
activation
degree to which something in memory is being actively attended to and metally processed
attention
focusing of mental processes on particular stimuli
automaticity
ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task
behaviorism
theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships
cognitive psychology
theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior
construction
mental process in which a learner takes many separate pieces of information and uses them to build an overall understanding or interpretation
constructivism
theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct (rather than absorb) a body of knowledge from their experiences
cortex
upper part of the brain; site of conscious and higher-level thinking processes
decay
weakening over time of information stored in long-term memory, especially if the information is used infrequently
declarative knowledge
knowlede related to "what is"--that is, to the nature of how things are, were, or will be
elaboration
cognitive process in which learners expand on new information based on what they already know
encoding
changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory
failure to store
failure to mentally process information in ways that promote its storage in long-term memory
inability to retrieve
failure to locate information that currently exists in long-term memory
information processing theory
theoretical perspective focusing on the specific ways in which learners mentally think about ("process") new information and events
interference
phenomenon whereby something stored in long-term memory inhibits one's ability to remember something else correctly
keyword method
mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two ideas by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects (keywords) that either sound similar to, or symbolibally represent, those ideas
knowledge base
one's knowledge about specific topics and the world in general
learning
relatively permanent change, due to experience, either in behavior or in mental representations or associations
long-term memory
component of memort that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time
maintenance rehearsal
repetition of information over and over to keep it "fresh" in working memory
meaningful learning set
attitude that one can make sense of the information one is studying
meaningful learning
cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know
memory
ability to save something (mentally) that has been previously learned, or mental "location" where such information is saved
mnemonic
memory aid or trick designed to help students learn and remember a specific piece of information
neuron
cell in the brain or another part of the nervous system that transmits information to other cells
organization
cognitive process in which learners find connections (e.g., by forming categories, identifying hierarchies, determining cause-effect relationships) among the various pieces of information they need to learn
prior knowledge activation
process of reminding students of things they have already learned relative to a new topic
procedural knowledge
knowledge concerning how to do something (e.g., a skill)
recall task
memory tast in which one must retrieve information in its entirety from long-term memory
recognition task
memory tast in whihc one must identify correct information among irrelevant information of incorrect statements
reconstruction error
construction of a logical but incorrect "memory" by using information retrieved from long-term memory plus one's general knowledge and beliefs about the world
rehearsal
cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it
response (R)
specific behavior that an individual exhibits
retrieval cue
hint about where to "look" for a piece of information in long-term memory
retrieval
process of "finding" information previously stored in memory
rote learning
learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it
sensory register
component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief period of time (perhaps a second or less)
social cognitive theory
theoretical perspective in which learning by observing others is the focus of study
stimulus (S)
specific object or event that influences an individual's learning or behavior
storage
process of "putting" new information into memory
superimposed meaningful structure
familiar shape, word, sentence, poem, or story imposed on information in order to facilitate recall
synapse
junction between two neurons that allows transmission of messages from one to the other
verbal mediator
word or phrase that forms a logical connection or "bridge" between two pieces of information
visual imagery
process of forming mental pictures of objects of ideas
wait time
length of time a teacher pauses, either after asking a question or hearing a student's comment, before saying something
working memory
component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information