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121 Cards in this Set

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Relate Excess of Yin–Yang and Deficiency of Yin–Yang to Heat and Cold (Full or Empty)
Excess of Yang is Full-Heat, Excess of Yin is Full-Cold, Deficiency of Yang is Empty-Cold, Deficiency of Yin is Empty-Heat
Mention at least five examples of the opposition of Yin–Yang in symptomatology
Hot–cold, dry–wet, rapid–slow, restless–quiet, excitement–inhibition
Explain the relationship between Liver-Blood and Liver-Qi in terms of Yin–Yang
Liver-Blood and Liver-Qi are an example of the Yin–Yang opposition of structure–function. Liver-Blood is the ‘structure’ of the Liver (Yin) and the free flow of Liver-Qi is its function (Yang). The two are interdependent
When Yin is deficient, what happens to Yang?
Yang is in apparent excess.
When Yang is preponderant, what happens to Yin?
Yin decreases.
How do Yin and Yang relate to the four seasons?
Summer and spring pertain to Yang; winter and autumn pertain to Yin.
What do the Chinese characters for Yin and Yang represent?
Yin represents the shady side of a hill and Yang the sunny side.
In the earliest references, in which order were the Five Elements enumerated, and how does this relate to their numerology?
Water, Fire, Wood, Metal, Earth, i.e. 1 (6), 2(7), 3(8), 4(9) and 5 (10).
Name three Five-Element relationships within the Generating Sequence and explain how these relate to the functions of the Internal Organs.
The Liver is the Mother of the Heart: the Liver stores Blood and Heart-Blood houses the Mind. The Spleen is the Mother of the Lungs: the Spleen provides Food-Qi to the Lungs where it interacts with air to form True Qi. The Lungs are the Mother of the Kidneys: Lung-Qi descends to meet the Kidneys; the Kidneys ‘grasp’ Qi.
Name three Five-Element relationships within the Controlling Sequence and explain how these relate to the functions of the Internal Organs.
The Liver controls the Stomach and Spleen: the free flow of Liver-Qi helps the Stomach to ripen and rot food and the Spleen to transform and transport. The Heart controls the Lungs: the Heart governs Blood, the Lungs govern Qi, Qi and Blood mutually assist and nourish each other. The Spleen controls the Kidneys: the Spleen’s transforming and transporting helps the Kidneys’ excretion of fluids.
Name three clinical implications of the Cosmological Sequence of the Five Elements.
Water as the foundation: the Kidneys store the Essence and are the source of all Yin and Yang energies of the body. Earth in the Centre: the Stomach and Spleen are the origin of Postnatal Qi and occupy a central position in physiology. Vertical axis of Heart and Kidneys: Heart and Kidneys must communicate with each other, with Fire going down and Water going up.
Name two relationships within the Over-acting Sequence in pathology and how these relate to Internal Organs pathological interactions.
The Liver over-acts on Stomach and Spleen: rebellious Liver-Qi may invade the Stomach, causing its Qi to go up (instead of down) and the Spleen, causing its Qi to descend (instead of ascend). The Spleen over-acts on the Kidneys: if the Spleen does not transform and transport fluids, these will accumulate and obstruct the Kidneys. The Kidneys over-act on the Heart: Empty-Heat arising from Kidney-Yin deficiency rises up to harass the Heart.
Name the five sounds, tastes and emotions corresponding to the Five Elements.
Wood: shouting, sour, anger; Fire: laughing, bitter, joy; Earth: singing, sweet, pensiveness; Metal: crying, pungent, sadness; Water: groaning, salty, fear.
What happens if we eat too much salt, and how is this explained in the light of the Five Elements?
Eating too much salt may lead to hardening of the arteries. The salty taste pertains to the Kidneys; an excessive consumption of this taste may over-act on the Heart. The Heart controls the blood vessels, and these are affected by the excessive salt consumption.
List four functions of the Kidney-Essence.
(i) It determines growth, reproduction and development; (ii) It is the basis for Kidney-Qi; (iii) It produces Marrow; (iv) It is the basis for constitutional strength.
What are the Three Treasures, and what is their clinical significance?
Essence, Qi and Mind (Jing, Qi, Shen). They represent three different states of aggregation of Qi, from Essence the densest to Mind the most rarefied and non-substantial. This highlights the close relationship existing in Chinese medicine between body and mind: the state of the Essence and Qi influences the Mind and vice versa.
List at least three functions of the Original Qi.
(i) It is the motive force of all physiological processes; (ii) It is the basis of Kidney-Qi; (iii) It facilitates the transformation of Qi; (iv) It facilitates the transformation of Blood; (v) It comes out at the Source points.
Where does Food-Qi derive from?
From the Stomach and Spleen.
How is Gathering Qi formed?
It is formed from Food-Qi combining with air in the Lungs.
How is True Qi formed?
It is formed from Gathering Qi under the transforming action of Original Qi.
Compare and contrast briefly Nutritive and Defensive Qi.
Nutritive Qi: refined, circulates in the channels, nourishes; Defensive Qi: coarse, circulates outside the channels, protects and warms.
List the physiological direction of Qi movement of Heart, Lungs and Liver.
Heart-Qi descends; Lung-Qi primarily descends; Liver-Qi flows in all directions.
How is Blood formed?
It is formed from Food-Qi in the Heart under the influence of Original Qi and Essence.
Which organs are mostly involved with Blood?
The Heart governs Blood, the Liver stores Blood, and the Spleen makes Blood.
What is the relationship between Qi and Blood?
Qi is the commander or Blood; Blood is the mother of Qi. Qi moves Blood; Blood nourishes Qi.
Which organs are primarily involved in the transformation, transportation and excretion of Body Fluids?
The Spleen transforms and transports fluids, the Lungs make fluids descend, the Kidneys transform and excrete fluids.
Why is bleeding therapy contraindicated in people who are sweating and sweating therapy contraindicated in people who are bleeding?
Blood and Body Fluids (including sweat) have a relationship of mutual interchange; therefore, depleting one might deplete the other.
Why is a red tip of the tongue very common in patients suffering from emotional problems?
A red tip of the tongue indicates Heart-Heat. As all emotions affect the Heart (as well as their relevant organ) because the Heart houses the Mind, which ‘feels’ the emotions, the tip of the tongue becomes easily red when the person is affected by any emotion.
List the organs that send Qi downwards.
Lung-Qi, Heart-Qi, Kidney-Qi, Stomach-Qi, Bladder-Qi, Large- and Small Intestine-Qi all descend.
Which two organs are associated with the space between the skin and muscles?
The space between the skin and the muscles is part of the Triple Burner cavities, and the movement of Qi in and out of this space relies on the entering and exiting of Lung-Qi.
In which two main ways are the Stomach and Spleen the 'centre'?
The Stomach and Spleen are central physiologically as they are the source of Qi and Blood and therefore all the organs rely on them for nourishment. Anatomically they are central as they are in the Middle Burner at the crossroads of many processes and movements of Qi.
Why, if Lung-Qi fails to descend, might there be symptoms of cough, headache and red eyes?
Because the failure of the Lung-Qi to descend affects the Liver and the rising of Liver-Yang.
Which Vital Substance does the Heart 'govern'?
Which Vital Substance does the Liver 'store'?
Which is the sense organ related to the Lungs?
Which types of soul do the Liver and the Lungs respectively 'house'?
Ethereal Soul; Corporeal Soul.
Which is the climate that adversely affects the Spleen?
The nails manifest the state of which organs?
Which fluid do the Kidneys control?
Spittle, or thick bubbly saliva under tongue.
What odour might you expect to emanate from the body of a patient suffering from a Heart disharmony?
In which way does the Heart 'govern' Blood?
The Heart influences the circulation of Blood throughout the body; the Heart is also the place where Food-Qi is transformed into Blood
How does the Heart affect blood vessels?
The Heart influences the state of the blood vessels.
What does a dull-pale complexion tell you about the state of the Heart?
Heart-Blood deficiency.
What are the main five functions of the Mind (Shen)?
Mental activity (including emotions), consciousness, memory, thinking, sleep.
Which aspect of the Heart affects sleep?
Primarily Heart-Blood.
How would a deficiency of Heart-Yang affect sweat?
A deficiency of Heart-Yang would cause spontaneous daytime sweating.
Which are the two main aspects of the Liver's storage of Blood?
Sending Blood to the sinews and muscles during exercise and storing Blood in relation to menstruation.
How does Liver-Blood affect menstruation?
The Liver stores Blood and is closely connected to the Uterus. When Liver-Blood is abundant, menstruation is normal; if Liver-Blood is scanty, the periods are scanty; if Liver-Blood is stagnant, the periods are painful; if Liver-Blood has Heat, the periods are heavy.
How does the smooth flow of Liver-Qi affect digestion?
The smooth flow of Liver-Qi ensures that Spleen-Qi ascends and Stomach-Qi descends, thus helping the transformation and transportation function of the Spleen and the rotting and ripening function of the Stomach. If Liver-Qi is stagnant, Spleen-Qi fails to ascend, causing loose stools, and Stomach-Qi fails to descend, causing hiccup, nausea and vomiting.
What is the influence of the smooth flow of Liver-Qi on the emotional state?
The smooth flow of Liver-Qi is very important for the emotional state. If Liver-Qi flows smoothly, the person is happy and relaxed; if Liver-Qi stagnates, the person is moody, irritable or depressed; if Liver-Qi rebels upwards (Liver-Yang rising), the person is prone to outbursts of anger.
How does anger affect the Liver?
Anger causes Liver-Qi to rise excessively (called Liver-Yang rising); this may cause headaches.
What would be the consequence of an insufficient moistening and nourishment of the eyes by Liver-Blood?
Blurred vision or floaters
Given that the Lungs govern Qi, in which way do they influence the blood vessels (under the control of the Heart and Blood)?
The Lungs govern Qi; Qi is the commander of Blood and Blood is the mother of Qi. Nutritive Qi and Blood flow side by side in both channels and blood vessels. Blood relies on the propelling action of Qi to flow in the blood vessels. It is for these reasons that the Lungs influence the blood vessels.
Which are the two main aspects of the Lungs' dispersing function?
The Lungs diffuse Qi and Body Fluids to the space between the skin and muscles. Qi is present in the space between skin and muscles in the form of Defensive Qi, which protects the body from invasions of external pathogenic factors. The Lungs also diffuse Body Fluids to the space between skin and muscles where they form sweat and moisten that space. This also contributes to the protection from external pathogenic factors.
Which are the two main aspects of the Lungs' descending function?
The Lungs descends Qi to the Kidneys, which respond by holding Qi; the coordination between Lungs and Kidneys harmonizes respiration. The Lungs also descend Body Fluids to the Kidneys, which evaporate them and send the resulting ‘steam’ up to the Lungs to keep them moist. Furthermore, the Lungs descend fluids to the Bladder from where they are excreted as urine.
How does the Lungs' regulation of Water passages depend on their dispersing and descending functions?
The dispersing of Qi and fluids towards the space between skin and muscles regulates the fluids of the Upper Burner and regulates sweat. For this reason the Upper Burner is compared to a ‘mist’. The descending of Qi and fluids to the Lower Burner (Kidneys and Bladder) ensures that fluids move from the Upper to the Lower Burner and also that they are excreted properly through the Bladder.
How does the Spleen’s function of transformation and transportation affect the making of Qi and Blood?
The Spleen’s function of transformation and transportation is essential in the making of Qi and Blood. The Spleen provides the first transformation of food essences, which, through a process of transformation, make Food-Qi (Gu Qi). Food-Qi goes to the Lungs to mix with air and form Gathering Qi, and to the Heart to make Blood. The Spleen’s function of transportation is essential for the correct movement of food essences and Food-Qi.
How does the Spleen’s function of transformation and transportation affect the metabolism of fluids?
After the fluids ingested reach the Stomach, the Spleen transforms them into a clear part and a turbid part; it then transports the clear part upwards to the Lungs and the impure part downwards to the Intestines.
To which organs does Spleen-Qi ascend?
To the Lungs (to form Gathering Qi) and to the Heart (to form Blood).
How does the Spleen coordinate with the Stomach?
Spleen-Qi ascends and Stomach-Qi descends. This coordination of ascending and descending of Qi in the Middle Burner is essential for the transformation and transportation of food essences, Qi and fluids upwards and downwards.
What is the meaning of the Spleen’s ‘control’ of Blood?
First, the Spleen controls Blood in the sense that it holds the Blood in the blood vessels; secondly, the Spleen controls Blood in the sense that Food-Qi is the basis for the formation of Blood.
How does a feeling of heaviness and muzziness of the head relate to the Spleen and, in particular, to which Spleen function?
Spleen-Qi ascends towards the head; this is the ascending of clear Qi or clear Yang, which brightens the sense orifices. A feeling of muzziness and heaviness of the head may be due either to deficient Spleen-Qi not ascending to the head, or to retention of Dampness in the head, itself due to the failure of Spleen-Qi to ascend.
How does the Spleen affect the muscles, and what is the consequence of Spleen-Qi deficiency in this area?
Spleen-Qi nourishes the muscles by bringing Qi and food essences to them. A deficiency of Spleen-Qi in this area is a very frequent cause of a feeling of tiredness.
What is the consequence of an impairment of the Spleen’s raising of Qi?
Spleen-Qi raises the internal organs; a deficiency of this function may therefore cause a prolapse of an organ.
What is the nature of pensiveness and how does it affect the Spleen?
Pensiveness, consists in thinking too much, brooding and hankering about the past, to the point of obsessive thinking. Pensiveness, ‘knots’ Spleen-Qi, i.e. it causes it to stagnate.
List the physiological processes that are governed or influenced by the Kidney-Essence.
Growth, reproduction, development, sexual maturation, 7- and 8-year cycles, conception, pregnancy, menopause and ageing.
What would happen if the Kidneys failed to 'grasp' the Qi sent down by the Lungs?
If the Kidneys do not receive and hold Qi down, it will escape upwards causing breathlessness and asthma.
Give examples of symptoms that would occur if weak Kidney-Qi failed to control the two lower orifices.
Urinary incontinence, spermatorrhoea or diarrhoea (leaking from urethra, spermatic duct or anus).
What are the smell, colour, taste, climate and sound of the Kidneys?
Putrid, black, salty, cold, groaning.
According to the theory of the internal organs, what are the two primary functions of the Pericardium?
the two primary functions of the pericardium are similar to those of the Heart: to govern Blood and house the Mind-Spirit.
Explain the relationship between Qi and Blood.
Qi and Blood are mutually dependent on each other as Qi is the commander of Blood and Blood is the mother of Qi. Blood needs the power of Qi in order to circulate in the blood vessels. Blood also needs the warmth of Qi to circulate; Qi needs the ‘immersion’, or liquid quality, of Blood as a vehicle to circulate.
How can the pattern of Excessive Heart-Fire affect the Lungs?
Excessive Heart-Fire dries up the Lungs’ fluids, causing a dry cough, dry nose and thirst.
How does Gathering Qi affect the function of the Heart and Lungs?
Gathering Qi collects in the chest, influencing both Heart and Lung function and the circulation of both Qi and Blood. If Gathering Qi is weak, the Qi and Blood of the Lung and Heart will be diminished, leading to symptoms such as a weak voice and cold hands.
What effect can Liver-Blood deficiency have on the Heart?
Liver-Blood deficiency can cause Heart-Blood deficiency as not enough Blood is stored by the Liver to nourish the Heart, causing palpitations and insomnia. In Five-Element terms, this would be described as the ‘Mother not nourishing the Child’.
How may deficient Heart-Blood affect the Liver? What symptoms may this situation give rise to?
Deficient Heart-Blood may disrupt the Liver’s ability to regulate the Blood, giving rise to symptoms such as dizziness and excessive dreaming. In Five-Element terms, this would be described as the ‘Child draining the Mother’.
Which Heart pattern can develop if Kidney-Yang is deficient?
If Kidney-Yang is deficient, the Kidneys are unable to perform their function of transforming fluids, which can overflow upwards causing the pattern ‘Water insulting the Heart’.
Which Heart pattern can develop if Kidney-Yin is deficient?
If Kidney-Yin is deficient it cannot rise to nourish Heart-Yin. This leads to the development of Empty-Heat within the Heart, manifesting in symptoms such as palpitations, mental restlessness, insomnia, malar flush and night sweats.
Explain how the Mind and Essence have a common root.
The Heart houses the Mind; the Kidneys store the Essence. Mind and Essence have a common root, as Essence is the fundamental substance from which the Mind is derived. Essence, Qi and Mind are three different states of condensation of Qi; the Essence being densest, Qi more rarefied, and Mind the most subtle and immaterial.
What may happen to the Mind if a person's Essence is weak?
If a person’s Essence is weak, this will be reflected in the state of the Mind: the person will lack vitality, self-confidence and will-power.
What is the spiritual aspect of the Kidney organ?
The spiritual aspect of the Kidney organ is known as the Zhi, or Will-Power.
The relationship between the Liver and Lungs reflects the relationship between which two vital substances?
The relationship between the Liver and Lungs reflects the relationship between Qi and Blood. The Lungs govern Qi, and the Liver stores and regulates Blood: Qi and Blood rely on each other to perform their respective functions.
How does the Liver rely on Lung-Qi to regulate Blood?
The Liver relies on Lung-Qi to regulate Blood because Lung-Qi drives Blood within the blood vessels (Qi being the commander of Blood).
How does Liver-Blood affect Lung-Qi?
Liver-Blood provides the moisture and nourishment necessary for Lung-Qi to circulate properly (Blood being the mother of Qi).
What is the direction of the flow of Lung-Qi and Liver-Qi?
Lung-Qi descends; Liver-Qi ascends. The descending of Lung-Qi is dependent on the ascending of Liver-Qi and vice versa.
Explain how deficient Lung-Qi will affect the Liver function of the smooth flow of Qi. What situation does this correspond to in Five-Element terms?
If Lung-Qi is deficient and fails to descend, it can affect the Liver function of the smooth flow of Qi, preventing Liver-Qi from rising and making it stagnate. In such cases, a person will experience listlessness (from deficiency of Qi), depression (from stagnation of Liver-Qi), cough and pain in the hypochondrial region. This situation corresponds to ‘Wood insulting Metal’.
What is the normal direction of Spleen-Qi?
What symptoms may occur if stagnant Liver Qi disrupts the Spleen's ability to transform food and fluids? What situation does this correspond to in Five-Element terms?
Stagnant Liver-Qi disrupts the upward flow of Spleen-Qi. This manifests as abdominal distension, pain in the hypochondrial region and loose stools. According to the theory of the Five Elements, this situation corresponds to ‘Wood overacting on Earth’.
How may deficient Spleen-Qi affect Liver-Qi? Which symptoms may this cause? Which Five-Element pattern does this situation correspond to?
If Spleen-Qi is deficient, its function of transformation and transportation of food and fluids will be impaired. Food and fluids will not be digested properly and will be retained in the Middle Burner, often also with the formation of Dampness. This in turn may impair the circulation of Liver-Qi and impair the smooth flow of Qi in the Middle Burner, causing abdominal distension, pain in the hypochondrial region and irritability. According to the theory of the Five Elements, this situation corresponds to ‘Earth insulting Wood’.
What is the relationship between Kidney-Yin and Liver-Yin and Blood? Describe this relationship in Five-Element terms.
Kidney-Yin nourishes Liver-Yin and Liver-Blood. In Five-Element terms this situation is known as ‘Water nourishes Wood’.
If Liver-Blood is deficient, what may happen to Kidney-Essence? What symptoms may occur in this situation?
Without the nourishment of Liver-Blood, Kidney-Essence may become weak, leading to symptoms such as deafness, tinnitus and nocturnal emissions
Deficiency of Liver-Yin may lead to the rising of Liver-Yang, with symptoms such as
blurred vision, tinnitus, dizziness, headaches and irritability.
What is the direction of Lung-Qi?
Lung-Qi descends.
If Spleen-Qi is deficient, how may Lung-Qi be affected? In this situation, what symptoms may occur? In Five-Element terms, how may this situation be described?
If Spleen-Qi is deficient, Food-Qi will be deficient and the production of Qi, especially the Qi of the Lungs, will be impaired. Symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue and a weak voice may occur. This situation may be described in Five-Element terms as ‘Earth not producing Metal’.
Describe the relationship the Spleen and Lungs have with Phlegm.
If Spleen-Qi is deficient, fluids will not be transformed leading to the formation of Phlegm. Phlegm usually settles in the Lungs impairing Lung function. It is said that ‘The Spleen is the origin of Phlegm and the Lungs store it’.
It is said that ‘The ______ is the origin of Phlegm and the ______ store it’.
spleen, lungs
How may a deficiency of Spleen-Qi affect Kidney-Essence? What symptoms may occur in this situation?
If Spleen-Qi is deficient, not enough Qi will be produced to replenish Kidney-Essence, leading to a weakness of Kidney-Essence. This may cause fatigue, low backache, lack of appetite, tinnitus and dizziness.
What may happen to Spleen-Qi if Kidney-Yang is deficient? In this situation, what symptoms may occur? In Five-Element terms, how may this situation be described?
If Kidney-Yang is deficient, the Fire of the Gate of Life cannot warm and aid the Spleen in its function of transformation and transportation of food and fluids, resulting in symptoms such as loose stools, diarrhoea and a feeling of chilliness. Dampness may accumulate and oedema may occur. In Five-Element terms, this situation may be described as ‘Fire not producing Earth’.
Explain how the Lungs and Kidneys are related in terms of Qi and fluids.
The Lungs send Qi and fluids down to the Kidneys. The Kidneys respond by holding the Qi down, evaporating some of the fluids, and sending the resulting vapour back up to the Lungs to keep them moist.
Explain the relationship of Gathering Qi and Original Qi.
Gathering Qi of the chest flows downwards to aid the Kidneys, and Original Qi of the Kidneys flows upwards to aid respiration.
What happens to the Kidney organ if Lung-Qi is deficient? What symptoms may occur?
If Lung-Qi is deficient, it cannot send fluids downwards and the Lungs cannot communicate with the Kidneys and Bladder, causing incontinence or retention of urine.
How will Kidney-Yang deficiency affect the Lungs? What symptoms may occur?
If Kidney-Yang is deficient and cannot transform and excrete the fluids in the Lower Burner, they may accumulate and form oedema. This may impair the Lung descending and dispersing function, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath or cough.
How will a deficiency of Kidney-Yin affect the Lungs? What symptoms may occur?
A deficiency of Kidney-Yin results in deficiency of fluids of the Lower Burner. Fluids fail to rise to moisten the Lungs, resulting in a deficiency of Lung-Yin. Symptoms resulting from a deficiency of Kidney and Lung-Yin include a dry throat at night, a dry cough, night sweating and a feeling of heat in the palms and soles of the feet.
Explain the role the Spleen and Heart play with regards to Blood.
The Spleen makes Blood (because it provides Food Essence, which is the basis for Blood); the Heart governs Blood.
Give three symptoms that might indicate the 'receiving' function of the Stomach had been compromised.
Poor appetite, belching, nausea and vomiting all indicate weak Stomach ‘receiving’.
Give two symptoms that might indicate a breakdown in the Stomach's transportation of food essences.
Tiredness and weakness of the muscles of the limbs.
What happens if Stomach-Qi fails to descend?
food will stagnate in the Stomach, causing sensations of fullness and distension, sour regurgitation, belching, hiccup, nausea and vomiting.
Describe the path of the 'clean' and 'dirty' parts of food, once transformed by the Small Intestine.
The ‘clean’ is transported by the Spleen to all parts of the body to nourish the tissues. The ‘dirty’ parts are transmitted to the Large Intestine and Bladder for excretion.
Give one symptom that might point to a pattern of Heat in the Small Intestine.
Scanty, dark urination.
Describe the mental aspect of the Small Intestine and how this relates to the role of the Gall Bladder in the process of decision making.
The Small Intestine influences judgement, mental clarity, and gives us the ability to clearly distinguish the relevant issues before we make a decision. The Gall Bladder gives us the courage to make the decision.
What is the capacity conferred by the Gall Bladder in the process of decision making?
Once all issues have been clarified, the Gall Bladder gives the courage to act.
‘The Nutritive Qi originates from the _______ Burner; the Defensive Qi originates from the ______ Burner.’
middle, lower
Which fluids result from the transformation process of the Triple Burner in the Upper, Middle and Lower Burners?
Upper Burner: sweat; Middle Burner: Stomach fluids; Lower Burner: urine.
The Lower Burner is like a ______ ______’
‘ The Upper Burner is like a _____’
‘ The Middle Burner is like a ______ ______’.
The Upper Burner is like a mist’,‘The Middle Burner is like a maceration chamber’,‘The Lower Burner is like a drainage ditch.’
List the different Qi of the Three Burners, according to the threefold division of the body.
Upper Burner: Gathering Qi (Zong Qi); Middle Burner: Nutritive Qi (Ying Qi); Lower Burner: Original Qi (Yuan Qi).
gathering Qi is called(pinyin)
zong Qi
Nutritive Qi is called (pinyin)
Ying Qi
Original Qi is called (pinyin)
Yuan Qi
Describe the pathology of amenorrhoea resulting from weak Kidney-Essence.
If Kidney-Essence is weak, the Uterus will be inadequately supplied with Blood and Essence, resulting in amenorrhoea.
What is the origin of menstrual blood (Tian Gui)?
Menstrual blood (Tian Gui) is a precious fluid deriving directly from the Kidney-Essence, different in origin and nature from normal Blood in the body
How and why might the Liver be implicated if a patient suffers from painful periods with dark, clotted blood?
The Liver has the function of storing and regulating Blood and ensuring the smooth flow of Qi. If Liver-Qi becomes stagnant, it may cause Liver-Blood stasis, which affects the Uterus, causing pain and dark, clotted blood.
Which two Yin organs are most closely related to the Brain, and why?
The Kidneys and the Heart: Kidney-Essence produces Marrow, which fills the Brain and spinal cord; Heart-Blood is responsible for nourishing the brain.