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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Health
state of optimal functioning or well-being
Licensure
to be given a license to practice nursing in a state or province after successfully meeting requirments
Nurse Practice Act
laws established to regulate nursing practice
Nursing
profession that focuses on the holistic person receiving health care services and provides a unique contribution to the prevention of illness and the maintenance of health
Nursing Process
five-step systematic method for giving patient care ; involves assess, diagnosing, planning implementing, and evaluating
Profession
an occupation that meets specific criteria including a well defined body of specific and unique knowledge, a code of ethics and standards, ongoing research, and autonomy
Receprocity
process allowing a nurse to apply for and be endorsed as a registered nurse by another state
Standards
rules or guidelines allowing nurses to carry out professional roles, serving as protection for the nurse, the patient, and the institution where the health care is given
Nursing: PPT definition
protection, promotion, and optimization, of health and abilites, prevention of injury and illness, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, commnites, and populations
Central focus of nursing
the patient
Aims of Nursing
- to promote health
- to prevent illness
- to restore health
- to facilitate coping with disability or death
Meeting Aims of Nursing
use of knowledge, skills, and critical thinking to give care in a variety of traditional and expanding nursing roles
Four Essential Competencies
cognitive, technical, interpersonal, ethical/legal skills
Current Nursing trends
- evidence based practice EBP
- community-based nursing
- decreased length of hospital stay
- aging population
- increase in chronic care conditions
- independent nursing practice
- culturally competent care
Animism
belief that good and evil spirits bring health and illness
Pre-civilization Nursing
- medicine men treated disease by chanting, inspiring fear, ect.
- animism
- nurse portrayed as mother caring for family
Beginning of Civilization
- belief that illness was caused by sins
- temples were centers of medical care
- priests as physician
- nurse viewed as slave carrying out menial tasks
Beginning of 16th Century
- Focus on religion replaced by focus on warfare
- exploration and expansion of knowledge
- nursing considered disgraceful
18th - 19th Century
- social reforms changed roles of women
- hospital schools organized
- male dominance
- nursing became respected occupation
- modern nursing education founded by Florence Nightingale
World War II
- explosion of knowledge in medicine and technology
- efforts to upgrade nursing education
- women more assertive and independent
1950's to present
- varied health care settings developed
- nursing broadened in all areas
- nursing became a profession
1950's to present
- emphasis on evidence based practice
- specific body of knowledge was developed
- nursing research was conducted and published
Florence Nightingale - Contributions
- stressed need for continuing education
- two components; health and illness
- nutrition important to health
- occupational and recreational therapy for sick people
- maintaining accurate recorde
- nursing research
Florence Nightingale - contributions
- defined nursing as art and science
- differentiated nursing from medicine
- role of nurse in meeting individual needs
- standards for hospital management
- established nursing as respected occupation
Maslow's Hierarchy
lower-level needs: physiologic, safety and security
higher level needs: love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization
Maslow's relevance to nursing
- explains human behavior in terms of basic requirements for survival and growth
- prioritize patient needs
- serves as a guide to help meet patients physiological and psychosocial needs
Family Functions: Physical
safe, environment to facilitate growth, development, and rest/recuperation
Family Functions: Economic
financial aid/situation
Family Functions: Reproductive
raising children
Family Functions: affective and coping
support, emotional comfort
Family Functions: Socialization
transmits beliefs, values, attitudes, coping mechanisms
Risk Factors for altered family Health
lifestyle, psychosocial, environmental, developmental, biologic
- as a nurse you must also help the family to meet their basic human needs
Community
a specific population or group of people living in the same geographic area under similar regulations and having common values, interests, and needs
Community Factors affecting health
- social support systems
- community health care structure
- economic resources
- environmental factors
- nursing in the community
Health
state of complete physical, mental, and social well being, not merely the absence of disease
Illness
the unique response of a person to a disease
Wellness
an active state, oriented toward maximizing the potential of the individual
Health- Illness Continuum
measures a person's level of health on a graduated scale
Agent-Host environment model
the interaction of the agent, host, & environment creating risk factors that must be examined
Health promotion model
illustrates how people react to their environment as they pursue health
Health belief model
concerned with what people believe to be true about their health
Acute Illness
- rapid onset of symptoms that lasts a short period of time
Chronic Illness
permanent change, irreversable alterations in normal anatomy and physiology with a long period of care and rehabilitation required
Suchman's stages of acute illness
1. experiencing symptoms
2. assuming the sick role
3. assuming the dependent role
4. achieving recovery and rehabilitaion
Nursing and Stages of Illness
- incorporate knowledge of the acuity of the situation in order to develop appropriate care plan
Factors affecting Illness: Basic
- genetics
- sex
- age
- education
- experience
Factors affecting illness: everyday life
- work
- family
- lifestyle
- health behavior
Factors affecting illness: living conditions
- economy
- culture
- social conditions
- environment
Nursing and Illness Factors
- facilitate health behavior changes
- use behavior change strategies
- promote healthy lifestyle bahaviors
Facilitate Health Behavior Change Strategies
- provide info
- identify supports to attain goals
- appropriate referrals
Use of behavior change strategies
- identify readiness of patient
- help set timelines
- reinforce steps, encourage
Promote Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors
- stress reduction
- adequate rest & sleep
- nutritious diet
- exercise
- check- ups
Human Dimensions of Health
intelectual, environmental, spiritual, sociocultural, physical, emotional
Primary Prevention
addresses the needs of healthy patients to promote health and prevent disease with specific protections
Secondary Prevention
focuses on early identification of individuals or communities, experiencing illness, providing treatment, and conducting activities that help prevent a worsening health status
- screenings, examinations, family counseling
Tertiary Prevention
aims to prevent long-term consequences of a chronic illness or disability and to support optimal functioning
- meds, treatment, therapy
Disease
pathologic change in the structure or function of the body or mind
Exacerbation
period in chronic illness when the symptoms of the disease reappear
Holistic Care
care that takes the whole person into account
Morbidity
frequency that a disease occurs
Mortality
number of deaths
Remission
period in a chronic illness where a person is not experiencing symptoms
Risk Factor
something that increases a person's chances of illness or injury
applied/practical research
research designed to directly influence or improve medical practice
basic/pure research
designed to generate and refine theory; findings are often not directly useful in practice
concept
abstract ideas that are formed s impressions from the environment and formed into symbols of reality
conceptual framework
set of concepts, along with the statements that arrange the concepts into an understandable pattern
data
information
deductive reasoning
cognitive process in which one examines a general idea and then considers specific actions or ideas
evidence-based practice
nursing care supported by scientific rationale
EBP guideline
guidelines written by a panel of experts that synthesize information from multiple sources and recommend best practices to treat patients with a disease, symptom, or disability
inductive reasoning
cognitive process in which a specific action or idea is identified and then conclusions about general ideas are made
informed consent
knowledgable, voluntary permission obtained from a patient to preform a specific test or procedure
Nursing Research
research to improve the care of people in the clinical setting and to study people and the nursing profession, including education, policy development, ethics, and nursing history
nursing theory
differentiates nursing from other disciplines and activites by serving the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling, desired outcomes of nursing care practices
philosophy
study of wisdom, fundamental knowledge, and the processes we use to construct and develop our perceptions of life
process
series of actions, changes, or functions to bring about a result
qualitative research
method of research conducted to gain insight by discovering meanings
quantitative research
research involving the concepts of basic and applied research
systematic review
one of the strongest sources of evidence for EBP; summarizing finding from multiple studies