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77 Cards in this Set

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critical period vs sensitive period
in humans, critical periods are prenatal while sensitive periods are post natal- example is at seven weeks needs to have androgen flood in order to be male
critical period
associated with lorenz- lack of exposure is irreversibe
sensitive period
lack of exposure isnot irreversible
agents that cause some sort of birth defect
examples of teratogens
maternal malnutrition
drugs and alcohol
Sir Michael Rutter's six high risk factors for psychopathologyq
low SES, marital discord, large family size and crowding, maternal psychiatric disorder, paternal criminality, placement in foster care
bronfenbrenner's ecological model
four interacting systems
microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem (overarching beliefs and values general economic conditions)
physical development
facts on baby brain
25% of adult weight at birth
adult size by 12-13
4/5ths of full weight by end of second year
begins shrinking at 30
accelerates at age of 60
newborn reflexes
rooting (head turns to stroke)
babinski (toes fan out and corl)
moro- 'embracing' motion in response to loud noise or sense of being dropped
physical maturation in adolescense
early physical/sexual maturation better for boys, not for girls, but age of maturation is not predictive of adult adjustment girls 10.5-12 boys, 13-14
Piaget's constructivist approach
children are active constructors of knowledge, cognitive development is a process of adaptation, assimilation and accomodation
0-2 years, object permanence, symbolic (representational) thought (e.g. when mommy goes away) child uses images gestures or words to represent objects or experiences (e.g. child running around being an airplane
egocentrism, centration, irreversibility
transductive reasoning
inability to see things from other person's perspective-
lack of understanding that processes can be reversed (e.g. doll's head fell off kid doesn't understand can put head back on)
magical thinking animism (clouds are crying)
concrete operational 7-12
conservation (tall beaker small beaker), reversibility and decentration start of metacognitive abilities
formal operational 12 +
abstract hypothetical thinking-deductive thinking, adolescent egocentrism, personal fable, imaginary audience
vgotsky sociocultural theory
learning is first social and then individual, zone of proximal development and then scaffolding- symbolic play provide zone of proximal development
short term memory
working memory affected by increasing age but little or no age related change in memory span (primary memory)
long term memory
recent long term (secondary) memory shows substantial age-related decline but remote long term memory is not affected
episodic memory
affected more by increasing age than is semantic or procedural memory
explicit memory
explicit memory declines implicit memory is relatively unaffected
language- learning theory approaches
language aquisition is due largely to reinforcement and imitation (e.g. motherese; child directed speech)
language- Noam Chomsky nativits theory LAD
Language aquisition device (LAD0 that is innate and enables child to understand and speak in rule-governed ways once they have aquired sufficient vocabulary
smallest units of sound understood as part of language
smallest unit of sound that convey meaning
begins at 4 months includes sounds from all languages but narrows to child's native language at 9 to 14 months
apply a word to wider collection of object and events than is appropriate (all four legged animals are dogs) akin to assimilation
bilingual /bilingual education
minority language children in good programs have similar or better outcomes than peers in immersion programs may do code switching, cognitive flexibility is higher in childhood but doesn't transfer to adulthood
thomas and chess temperaments and traits
easy, difficult, slow to warm, based on nine temperament traits (activity, rhythmicity, appraoch/withdrawal, adaptability, intensity of reaction, threshold of responsiveness, mood quality, distractibility, attention
Thomas and chess goodness of fit model
maladjustment is due to lack of fit between child's basic temperament and his/her oparent's behavior
kagan temperament
temperament at childhood (age of two)predicted adult traits
stability of temperament
behavioral inhibition (approach/withdawal) in infancy is most predictive of characteristics in childhood, adolesnece, and early adulthood.
Freuds oral stage and erikson
trust 0-1
freuds anal and erikson and age
autonomy vs shame and doubt 1-3
freud's phallic eriskon age
3-6 initiative vs guilt
freud's latency erikson age
7-11 industry vs inferiority
freud's genital erikson age
identity vs identity confusion 12-18
erikson young adult
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
older adult
ego identity vs ego despair
Baumrind's four parenting styles
authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, rejecting
authoritative parents
high in warmth(responsive) and demandingness (control), children are best adjusted, self-confident, socially responsible, achievement oriented
low in warmth high in demandingness, childred are irritable aggressive, dependent have low levels of self esteem responsibility and academic achievement
permissive (non directive)
high in warmth low in demandingness, children are impulsive, self centered, easily frustrated, low in achievement and independence
rejecting/neglacting parents
low in warmth and demandingness, children have low self esteem , tend to be moody impulsive and aggressive
control task oriented
warmth, personal oriented
gender identity development
gender identity involves three stages
1. identity (2-3 )
3. constancy(6-7)cant alter gender just be changing appearance
bem's gender schema theory
chidren develop schemas of masculinity and femininity that organize how they think about gender
Marcia- four stages of adolescent identity development
identity diffusion- no crisis no commitment
identity foreclosure-commitment with no crisis
identity moratorium, crisis no commitment
identity achievement crisis leads to commitment
Gilligan relational theory
adolescent girls have a 'relational crisis' are at high risk for becoming disconnected from themselves the others and the world. loss of voice
bowlby ethological theory
internal working models of relationships develop out of early attachment experiences-built in behavior that supports attachment- internal working model completed at agetwo- alan schore e.g borderlines have no internal working model of attachment and therefore constantly require testing and reassurance
harlow and zimmerman
rhesus monkeys comfort and attachment more important than feeding
attachment patters
Ainsworth strange situation
anxious (insecure)/ambivalent (resistant)
secure attachment
secure pattern cry when mom leaves and greet her happily when she returns, mothers are emotionally sensitive and responsive to their babies
anxious/insecure avoidant
infants rarely cry when mom leaves and avoid her when she returns- if distressed they are as easily comforted by stranger as by mom. mothers of avoidant infants are impatient and unresponsive or provide child with too much stimulation
anxious (insecure)/ambivalent (resistant)
upset when mom leaves, ambivalent when she returns or may hit or push her away; mothers are moody and inconsistent in their caregiving
inconsistent behavior when she leaves, confused when she returns, children have been neglected or abused by their caregiver
stage of attachment in infant
6 months of age social referencing
separation anxiety 6-peaks at 14-18 months
stranger anxiety 8- 10 months peaks at 18 months
aggression Patterson's social learning approach
aggression is linked to coercive family patterns that
1. coercive interaction between parents and children
2. poor parental monitoring of childrne's activities
aggression perry's social cognitive theory
aggressive children are more likely than their less aggressive peers to
1. believe it is easy to perform aggressive acts but difficult to inhibit them
2. expect aggression to have positive outcomes
3. misinterpret the behaviors of others as intentionally hostile
Paiget stages of moral development
heteronomous morality
autonomous morality

kids don't lie til age seven but could be as early as three
piaget- heteronomous morality
unquestioning obediencde to authority and laws- law is more important than underlying reason
piaget-autonomous morality
11+ individuals recognize that rules and laws can be changed by consensus, intentions are more important than the consequences
kohlbergs stages of development
I preconventional
II conventional
III postconventional
Preconventional stage 1 and 2
stage i- obeys rules to avoid punishment
stage ii- conform to rules to obtain rewards
conventional stage 3 and 4
3 conforms to rules to avoid social disapproaval
4 obeys laws and rules to maintain social order
Level III postconventional stages 5 and 6
5 acts in accord with democratically chosen laws
6 acts in accord with universal ethical principles
gilligan's beef with kohlberg
more applicable to males, proposed an 'ethics of care' stage theory emphasizing concerns about responsibilities and relationships.,
divorce effects immediate effects
worse for preschoolers and boys
divorce sleeper effects
girls may not show immediate effects but do so later in form of non compliance, low self esteem, sexual adjustment as teen
remarriage stepparents
early adolescents have more adjustment problems to remarriage than later adolescents.
maternal employment
boys and girls whose mothers work have fewer gender stereotypes than do peers whose mothers stag at home, negative effects involve poor academic achievement in middle and upper class boys
teacher interaction
boys receive more criticism and praise than girls with both gendered teachers-boys criticized for failure to do their work, girls criticized for lack of ability
early compensatory education
effects on IQ and achievement good in short term, long term benefits on higher self esteem, increased likelihiood for graduation, better attitude toward school.