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139 Cards in this Set

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ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY
Subdiscipline of anthropology that cofuses on subsistence strategies and econmic systems
SUBSISTENCE PATTERNS
Methods of obtaining food using available land and resources, available labor and energy, and technology.
FORAGERS
Peoples whose subsistence pattern is hunting and gathering
FOOD PRODUCERS
Users of a substinence strategy that transforms and manages the environment in order to obtain food.
PASTORALISM
A subsistence strategy focusing on raising and caring for large herds of domesticated animals
HORTICULTURE
A subsistence strategy focusing on intensive farming, investing a great deal of time, energy, and technology
CARRYING CAPACITY
The number of people who can be sustained by the resources and environment in which they live
SETTLEMENT PATTERN
The way people distribute themsevles in their environment, including where they lovate their dwellings, how they group dwellings into settlements, and how permanent or transitory those settlements are.
RECIPROCITY
Principles of mutual gift giving
REDISTRIBUTION
The gathering together and then reallocaiton of food and resources to ensure everyones survival.
LEVELING MECHANISMS
Cultural practices designed to equalize access to food, resources, and social prestige through a community so that no one individual can amass greater wealth or greater prestige than other people
NOMADS
People who do not have permanent homes but trave to sources of food as they food becomes seasonably available
OPTIMAL FORAGIN THEORY
Application of animal studies and decision theory to human foraging
TRANSHUMANCE
The practice among pastoralists of moving to new pastureland on a seasonal basis
SURPLUS
Food and other goods that are produced at a level greater then that needed for survival
SEDENTARY COMMUNITES
Settlement pattern involving long-term, permanent settlements
SLASH-AND-BURN CULTIVATION
A farming technique for preparing new fields by cutting down tress and bushes and then brining them in order to clear the land enrich the soil with nutrients
INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE
Application of technology and intensive labor to farming, such as the plow and irrigation
INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE
Application of industrial technology and chemicals to farming in order to increase productivity
CONSUMPTION
The use of subsistence resources, iuncluding outcomes of production
ECONOMIC SYSTEM
Cultural methods of allocaiton natural resources, the means of exploiting the resources through technology, the organization of work, and the production, distribution, consumption, and exchange of goods and services
PRODUCTION
System of extracting resources and utilizing labor and technology in order to obtains foods, goods, and services
SPECIALIZATION OF LABOR
System of allocating work in which different people perform different tasks
GENERALIZED RECIPROCITY
The exchange of goods and services without keeping track of their exact vaule, but often with the expectation that their value will balance out over time.
BALANCED RECIPROCITY
Exchange of goods and services of a specified value at a specified time and place.
POTLATCH
Ceremonial feast, characteristic of indigenous Pacific Northwest coast societies, during whcih hosts distributed to guests a great deal of food and goods that had been accumulated over many mouths or years
NEGATIVE RECIPROCITY
Exchange of goods and services in which each party seeks to benefit at the expense of the other, thus making a profit
BARTER
An exchange of products in which one person gives one type of product in exchange for another type of product
REDISTRIBUTE NETWORKS
Economic systems in which food and other goods are amssed by an organizer and then distributed to community members or guests at large public gatherings
TRADE
System of exchange in which goods are exchanged for either other goods or for money.
MARKET ECONOMY
Economic system in which products are traded in impersonal exchanges between buyers and sellers using an all-purpose currency
COMMODITY
A product that can be sold or traded in return for money or other products
CAPITALISM
An economic mode of production in wich the goal is to ammas wealth in the form of money in order to gain control over the means of production and then use this control to accumulate ven greater wealth
CAPITAL
Land, money, factories, and the liek that suport and supply the materials needed for production
SURPLUS VALUE
The amount of value produced by workers in capitalist than the wage paid to him
COLONIALISM
Policies in which countries establish colonies in distant places in order to exploit their resources and labor and possibly to establish settlements of their own citizens abroad
MISSION SYSTEM
Pattern of Spanish colonization of the Americas in the name of the Roman Catholic Church
POLL TAXES
Taxes levied on households
INDUSTRIALISM
The use of machines to produce products and foods
CONSUMERISM
Culture of consumption of goods and services
KINSHIP SYSTEM
System of determining who one's relatives are and what one's relationship is to them.
CONSANGUINES
People related by blood.
AFFINES
People related through marriage
FICTIVE KIN
Unrelated individuals who are regarded and treated as relatives
RULES OF DESCENT
Social rules that stiupate the nature of relationships from one generation to another
BILATERAL DESCENT
Principle of descent in which people think of themselves related to both their mother's kina dn their father's kin at the same time
UNILINEAL DESCENT
Principle of descent in whcih people define themselves in relation to only one side, either thei mother's side or their father's side
KINDRED
Kinship group consisting of known bilateral relatives with wom people interact, socialize, and rely on for econmic emotional assistance
MATRILINEAL
Descent system in which kinshp group membership and inheritence pass through the female line
PATRILINEAL
Descent system in which kinship group membership and inheritence pass through the male line
PATRIARCHY
Social system in which men occupy positions of social, economic, and political power from which women are excluded
INHERITENCE RULES
Rules for the passage of land, wealth, and other property from one generation to the next
DOUBLE DESCENT
Kinship principle in which people belond to kinship groups of both their mother and father
PARALLEL DESCENT
Kinship principle in which descent and inheritance follow gender-linked lines so that men consider themselves decended from their fathers and women consider themsevles descended from thie mothers
AMBILINEAL DESCENT
Principle of descent in which individuals may choose to affiliate with either their mother's or their father's kinship group.
LINEAGE
A set of relatives tracing descent from a known common ancestor
EXOGAMY
Marriage principle in which peeople cannot marry members of their own lineage or clan but instead must forge alliances with members of other groups.
ENDOGAMY
Marriage principle in which people marry members of their own group
PARALLEL COUSIN
A child of one's mother's sister or of one's father's brother
CROSS-COUSIN
A child of one's mother's brother or of one's father's sister
CLANS
Named groups of people who believe that they are relatives even though they may not be able to trace their actual relationships with all members of their group
MATRICIANS
Clans formed through descent and inheritence from women of the group
PATRICIANS
Clans formed through descent and inheritance from men of their group
TOTEM
An animal or plant believed by a group of people to have been their primordial ancestor or protector
SEGMENTARY LINEAGES
Lineages organized in a heirarchial structure, ranked according to the number of generations they encompass.
PHRATRIES
Groups of linked clans that are usually exogamous
MOLETIES
Groups of linked clans that divide a society into two halves, usually exogamous
AVOIDANCE RELATIONSHIPS
Patterns of behavior between certain sets of kind that demonstrate respect and social distance
JOKING RELATIONSHIPS
Patterns of behavior between certain sets of kin that involve reciprocal joking, teasing, and playfulness, sometimes taking the form of flirtation and sexual innuendo
KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY SYSTEM
System of terms used to address and refer to relatives
IROQUOIS SYTEM
Kin terms that emphasize the difference between one's parent's same sex siblings and parents' opposite-sex siblings classifying parallel cousins with one's own siblings
ESKIMO SYSTEM
Kin terms making distinctions between the nuclear family and all other types of relatives and on gender
HAWAIIAN SYSTEM
Kin terms making distinctions only of generation and gender
CROW SYSTEM
Kin terms used by some matrilineal peoples that extend the term for father and father's sister to include cross-cousings on the paternal side
OMAHA SYSTEM
Kin terms used by some patrilineal peoples that extend the term for mother and mother's brother to include cross-cousins on the maternal side
SUDANESE SYSTEM
Kin terms that give separate words for all kin relationships
GENDER
The roles that people perfrom in their households and communites and the values and attitudes that people have regarding men and women
SEX
Biological differences between males and females
GENDER CONSTRUCT (GENDER MODEL)
The set of cultural assumptions about gender roles and values and the relations between the genders that people learn as members of their societies
CULTURAL CONSTRUCTS
Models of behavior and attitudes that a particular culture transmits to its members
TRANSVESTISM
Dressing in the clothes usually worn by members of the opposite gender
BERDACHES
Male Two-spirits in some native american societies who adopted some of the economic and social roles of women
TWO-SPIRITS
In native american societies, males who adopted some of the social and econmic roles of women, and females who adopted some of the social and ecominc roles of men.
GENDER ROLES
Constellations of rights, duties, attitudes,and behaviors that are culturally associated with each gender
GENDER RELATIONS
Norms of interaction between men and women, which may reflect differences in the relative status, prestige, and power of women and men
GENDER EQUALITY
A constellation of behaviors attitudes, and rights that support the autonomy of both women and men.
GENDER INEQUALITY
The denial of autonmy and equal rights to one group of people based on their gender
MALE DOMINANCE
A constellation of behaviors and attitudes that grant men access to roles of prestige and reqard and deny the same to women
GENDER GAP
The difference in wages and income earned by men and women for comparable work
CULT OF DOMESTICITY
Constellation of beliefs popular in the late nineteenth eand early twentieth centuries that promoted the notion that women were, by nature and biology, suited to the domestic tasks of nurturing and caring for thie husbands and children
SOCIAL REPRODUCTION
The care and sustenance of people who will be able to contribute productively to society
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
The ways in which societies are organized to plan group activities, make decisions affecting members of the group, select leadership, and settle disputes both within the group and with other groups
POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
The study of the ways that communites plan group actions, make decisions affecting the group, select leadership, and resolve conflicts and disputes both within the group and with other groups
BANDS
Small, loosely organized groups of people held together by informal means.
SAGAMORE
A leader of a Mi'kmaq band who had some degree of control over a small territory and had some rold in economic redistribution
TRIBES
Societies with some degree of fomralization of structure and leadership, including village and intervillage councils whose members regularly meet to settle disputes and plan community activities
ASSOCIATIONS
Sociopolitical groups that link people in a community on the bass of shared interests and skills
AGE GRADE (AGE SET)
A sociopolitical association of people of more or less similar age who are given specific social functions
CONFEDERACY
A form of political organization in which tribes and bands join together under common leadership to face an external threat
CHIEFDOMS
Stratified societies organized by kinship
KINGDOM
A centralized politcal organization with the king as the paramount leader.
STATES
Highly organized centralized politcal systems with a hierachcial structure of authority
REPUBLICS
Atate societies with elected rather than inherited leadership.
PRIMOGENITURE
A system of inheritence of leadership in which the eldest child (usually the eldest song) automatically inherits the position of leadership from his or her parent
EMPIRES
States expanded into larger units through conquest and the occupation or annexation of new territories
SOCIAL CONTROL
Informal and formal mechanisms in society through which peopl's actions are controlled and social norms or laws are enforced
TERRORISM
Acts of violence perpetrated by private citizens against a foreign country or against a foreign country withou the cover and sanction of a state declared war.
THEOCRACIES
Societies ruled by religious leaders, in which the social order is upheld through beliefs in its divine origin or sanction
FACTIONALISM
The tendency for groups to split into opposing parties over politcal issues, often a cause of violence and a treat to political unity
POSITIVE SANTIONS
Recognition and rewards for observing social norms
NEGATIVE SANCTIONS
Punishments for offending social norms
INFORMED SANCTIONS
Rewards and punishments expressed through praise, ridicule, gossip, and the like
FORMAL SANTIONS
Rewards and punishments administered by persons in authority, the state, or the law
DOMINANCE HIERARCHIES
In primate groups social hierarchies established on the basis of sex and age
POSTCONFLICT RECONCILIATION
Patterned behavior that occurs immediately after conflict has erupted and taken its course, to restore some measure of social harmony
CONFLICT AVOIDANCE
Prosocial behaviors, such as, reconciliation, consolation, politeness, or apology, to repair social relationships without aggression
PEACEMAKERS
Individuals with a specialized social role of preventing conflict from erupting into dangerous combat
DEFERENCE
Nonthreatening verbal and nonverbal behaviors that convey respect or subordination to others
POLITENESS STRATEGIES
Behaviors designed to mute antagonisms and avoid overt hostility by affirming common bonds and orecognizing another person's rights and feelings
SONG DUETS
Inuit contests in which conflict is expressed and resolved through public response to music
WITCHCRAFT
A belief system that functions as a mechanism of social control by channeling anger toward others
VENGEANCE
Aggresion against others based on the principle of revenge
BLOOD FUED
Ongoing conflict between kin groups or communites based on vengeance
WARFARE
Armed aggresion and hostilites between groups
AESTHETICS
Philosophies about what has beauty and value in art
Art
Artifacts of human creation created through the excercise of exceptional physical, conceptual, or imaginative skill; produced in a public medium and intended to affect the senses, sharing stylistic conventions with similar works.
MIMETIC
Art thar portrays the world acurately
REPRESENTATIONAL
Art that imitates, idealizes, or symbolizes form and experience.
INSTRUMENTAL
Art that attempts to have a benficial effect on society, enriching people's lives, teaching moral lessons, and providing insights for improving and changing the world
FORMALIST
Abstract art that focuses on the formal qualities of art - color, composition, sound, words, or movements
SCARIFICATION
Artistic and ritualistic scarring of the face or other parts of the body in particular designs, commonly used to mark transitions to adulthood.
TATTOOING
Injecting inks or dyes under the skin to produce designs
ARTISANS
Specialists in the production of works of art
SANDPAINTINGS
Paintings made by sprinkling fine, colored sand to make stylized representations of spirit beings, in particular for use in Navajo curing ceremonials
VENUS FIGURINES
Sculptures made in Europe about 30,000 years ago, thought to represent pregnant women.
ETHNOMUSICOLOGY
The study of the musical styles and traditions of a people
ORAL LITERATURE
Stories that people tell about their sacred past, their secular histories, and their personal lives
FOLKTALES
Secular stories that relate events that teach moral lessons or entertain listeners
ETHNIC ART
Art produced by a particular group of people that comes to express and symbolize their ethnic identity