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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two gamete types? What is formed when they come together?
Sperm and Eggs (Ova). Zygote.
What type of asexual reproduction exists in protists? Cnidarians? Arthropods?
Fission. Budding. Parthenogenesis.
What happens in parthenogenesis?
Offspring develop from unfertilized eggs.
What is hermaphroditism? Sequential hermaphroditism? What are the sequential hermaproditism types?
The system where an individual has both testes and ovaries. The changing of gender. Protogyny (female to male) and Protandry (male to female).
In mammals, sex is determined and (naturally) permanent. What gene determines sex?
SRY (If it is absent, the embryo is female).
Describe external and internal fertilization.
External: sperm and eggs released into water. Internal: sperm into female reproductive tract.
What are the three types of embryonic development after internal fertilization?
Oviparity- fertilized eggs are released. Ovoviparity- fertilized eggs retained and feed off yolk. Viviparity- embryo develops within mother and uses mother's blood for nourishment.
Describe reproduction in fish.
External fertilization (except cartilaginous fish), little yolk, speedy development.
Describe reproduction in amphibians.
External fertilization, little yolk, longer development (embryonic, larval, and adult stages).
Describe reproduction in reptiles and birds.
Internal fertilization, mostly oviparous (all birds), slow development in birds (nurtured by parents).
What is the estrous cycle? What is estrus?
The female reproductive cycle of mammals. The period of female sexual receptivity around ovulation.
What are the two major hormones in the estrous cycle?
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH).
Describe monotremes. Marsupials. Placental mammals.
Oviparous mammals. Fetuses complete development in a pouch. Fetus nurtured for longer time by placenta.
What structures produce sperm?
Seminiferous tubules.
What cells secrete testosterone?
Leydig cells.
What cells line the walls of the seminiferous tubules?
Spermatogonia/germ cells (become sperm by meiosis) and supporting Sertoli cells.
What is the order of development from spermatogonia to spermatozoa?
Spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatid, spermatozoa.
Sperm have a head, body and tail. What is in the head? Body? Tail?
The nucleus, capped by the acrosome (creates enzymes to bore through egg). Centriloe and mitochondria. Flagellum.
What path do sperm take after they leave the seminiferous tubules?
Epididymis, vas deferens, joined by seminal vesicle ducts, ejaculatory duct, prostate, urethra, joined by bulbourethral gland ducts.
What are the two types of erectile tissue?
Corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
What does FSH do in males? LH?
Stimulates Sertoli cells to facilitate sperm development. Stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone.
What are the functional units of the ovary? What is inside them?
Ovarian follicles. An egg and granulosa cells.
What is the major female sex hormone? What cells secrete it? What does it do?
Estradiol (estrogen). Granulosa cells. Triggers menarche (onset of menstrual cycle) and female secondary sexual characteristics.
What are the two phases of the menstrual cycle?
The follicular and luteal phases.
What happens in the follicular phase?
FSH causes a Graffian/tertiary follicle to form. Primary oocyte divides into secondary oocyte and polar body. Secondary oocyte arrested in metaphase II. Ovulation starts.
What happens in the luteal phase?
The Graffian follicle becomes the corpus luteum, which secretes estrogen and progesterone.
What are the phases of endometrial development/the menstrual cycle?
Proliferative (endometrium grows, follicular phase), Secretory (endometrium functions as a gland, luteal phase), and Mentrual (endometrium sloughed off).
What does the embryo secrete to prevent menstruation?
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
What are some methods of contraception?
Abstinence, Sperm Blockage, Sperm Destruction, Prevention of Ovulation, Prevention of Embryo Implantation and Sterilization.