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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is homeostasis?
The dynamic constancy of internal environment.
Describe a negative feedback loop.
Sensors measure a condition and relay the information to an integrating center which sends a message to effectors once the condition deviates from a set point. Effectors tend to correct the deviation.
What monitors glucose levels in the blood? How do they respond to an increase?
The islets of Langerhan? They secrete insulin.
What are antagonistic effectors? What are positive feedback loops?
Effectors where one and only one is active at all times. Loops that cause even further deviation from the set point. Very unstable.
What is osmolality? What is osmotic pressure? What are osmoconformers? Osmoregulators?
Moles of solute per kg of water. The tendency of a solution to take in water by osmosis. Animals that have similar molality to the environment. Animals that maintain a different molality than what their environment is.
What are the osmoregulatory/excretory cells in flatworms? in insects? in vertebrates?
Flame cells. Malpighian tubules. Kidneys.
What are two osmotic problems for freshwater fish? How are these problems solved?
Water tends to enter the body and solutes tend to leave. Fresh water fish don't drink water, reabsorb nutrients from nephrons, and actively transport ions.
What problem existed for marine fish? How was it solved by bony fish? Cartilaginous fish?
Water tended to leave the body. Bony marine fish drink sea water. Cartilaginous fish maintain high blood urea concentration.
What are the different forms of nitrogenous wastes?
Ammonia, which can be converted into urea (mammals...)or uric acid (reptiles, birds...) which is converted by most mammals into allantoin.
What are the repeating units of kidneys?
What is the structure of nephrons?
They have an afferent arteriole that leads to a glomerulus. The Bowman's capsule envelopes the glomerlus and descends into the prosimal convoluted tubule. It goes through the loop of Henle into a distal convoluted tubule that leads to a collecting duct. Peritubulur capillaries around the tubules reabsorb necessary nutrients.
Describe the human kidney.
The kidney is divided into a renal cortex and renal medulla. A renal pelvis collects urine into the ureter which leaves each kidney to a urinary bladder.
How is reabsorption take place in the proximal convoluted tubules?
It carries out active transport and secondary active transport.
Who are you going to vote for MHA president?
Robert Fromm.