Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In what area is the rRNA phylogeny greatly different from the traditional animal family tree?
The Protostome branch.
According to the rRNA phylogeny, what two major groups are the protostome phyla divided in to?
Lophotrochozoans and Ecdysozoans.
What is the main difference between them?
Lophotrochozoans grow by adding cells to themselves. Ecdysozoans grow by molting their external skeletons.
What is the name for the free-living larva that most lophotrochozoans have?
What four phyla are assigned to Lophotrochozoan?
The lophophorate phyla, Flatworms, Mollusks, and Annelids.
What is a lophophore?
A horseshoe-shaped crown of cilliated tentacles present in members of the lophophorate phyla.
What two phyla have been particularly successful as Ecdysozoans?
Roundworms (Nematoda) and Arthropods (Arthropoda).
What is the minimal requirement for classification as a Parazoa?
Larval sponges are free-swimming, but adults are _______.
Sessile (anchored)
What layers do sponges have?
They have an internal layer of flagellated choanocytes, an intermediate gelatinous mesohyl, and an outer epithelial layer.
Wastes are forced out of the the sponge through the _______.
How do sponges reproduce?
They can either fragment themselves or reproduce sexually.
What phylum do sponges belong to?
What is the minimal requirement for classification as a Radiata?
What layers do Radiata have?
A layer of digestive tissues called the gastrodermis, a gelatinous mesoglea, and an epidermis.
What phyla are members of Radiata?
Cnidaria and Ctenophora.
What are the two body plans of Cnidarians?
Polyps and Medusae.
What are the free-swimming, multicellular, ciliated larvae of Cnidarians called?
What is the Cnidarian nervous system like?
It is just a net of nerve cells.
What cells on Cnidarian tentacles help them catch prey? What particular structure makes them functional?
Cnidocytes. Nematocysts.
What are the classes of Cnidariants?
Hydrozoa(hydroids), Scyphozoa(jellyfish), Cubozoa(box jellyfish), Anthozoa(corals and anemones)
What is the minimal requirement for being classified as a Bilaterian?
Bilateral Symmetry.
Are Bilaterians triploblastic or diploblastic?
Describe the phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms).
They have an incomplete gut, an excretory system, a simple central nervous system, flame cells, and no circulatory system.
What classes of Platyhelminthes exist?
Turbellaria (only free-living), Trematoda (flukes), Cestoda (Tapeworms).
What are the life stages of Flukes, in order of development?
Miracidium (larva), sporocyst, rediae, cercariae, metacercariae.
What are the three parts of Tapeworms?
The scolex (attachment organ), neck, and proglottids (segmented section)
What is special about the phylum Nemertea (Ribbon worms)?
They have a fluid-filled sac that could be a primitive coelom, a complete digestive system, and a circulatory system with blood vessels.
What was the next change in body plan as members of Platyhelminthes evolved?
An internal body cavity.
Do pseudocoelomates have defined circulatory systems?
Name the piercing organs Nematodes usually have on their mouthes. Where does the food go after passing through the mouth?
Stylets. The Pharynx.
What new phylum was recently created to accomodate an organism that lives on the mouthes of lobsters?
Who are you going to vote for MHA president?
Robert Fromm.