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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is energy? What is kinetic energy? Potential energy?
The capacity to do work. Energy of motion. Stored energy.
What are thermodynamics?
Changes in heat.
What is a calorie? Is it the same as a dietary calorie?
The energy required to raise one gram of water's heat by one degree Celsius. No. A dietary calorie is a kilocalorie.
What is heat?
The measure of random motion of particles
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only change form. (Some of this energy can be "lost" as heat)
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Disorder (entropy) is constantly increasing in the universe. (Matter being converted to energy)
During oxidation, an atom _____ an electron. During a reduction, an atom ______ an electron.
Loses, Gains
A reaction where an oxidation and a reduction occur is called a ______ reaction.
What is "Free Energy"? What are its units?
The amount of energy actually available to break and then subsequently form chemical bonds. Gibbs' (G).
What is an endergonic reaction? What is an exergonic reaction?
A reaction that requires a net input of energy. A reaction that has a net output of energy.
What is the formula for free energy?
G=H-TS G=Gibbs' (Free energy). H=entalpy (energy in the chemical bonds). S=entropy (energy unavailable because of disorder). T=Absolute Temperature (Kelvin)
What is activation energy?
The extra energy required to break down existing chemical bonds to start a reaction.
What does a catalyst do?
It lowers the activation energy of a reaction.
What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts usually composed of globular proteins.
What are the substances that bind to enzymes? Where on the enzyme do they bind?
Substrates. Active Sites.
What are multienzyme complexes?
Groups of several enzymes that catalyze the individual steps of a sequence of reactions that are associated with one another.
The rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction increases with _____, but only to an optimum point. Enzymes also have an optimal ___.
Temperature, pH
What are inhibitors and their two types?
Inhibitors are substances that bind to enzymes to decrease their activity. Competitive and Noncompetitive.
What is the difference between competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors?
Competitive inhibitors bind to and block the active site. Noncompetitive ones bind to an allosteric site
What are activators?
Substances that bind to enzymes to increase their activity.
What is ATP? What is its function? What is the functional part of ATP?
Adenosine Triphophate. It is the chief energy currency of the cell. The triphophate group (its bonds hold the energy).
What is metabolism?
The total of all chemical reactions in an organism.
What are biochemical pathways?
The organization units of metabolism.
What is anabolism? Catabolism?
Reactions that expend energy. Reactions that harvest energy.
What is feedback inhibition?
The regulation of biochemical pathways, by the product inhibiting the first enzyme.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm