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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are biological molecules? What are hydrocarbons?
Molecules that consist mainly of carbon. Biological molecules that contain only hydrogen and carbon. They contain covalent bonds with significant energy.
What are all the functional groups?
Hydroxyl(OH), Carbonyl(CO), Carboxyl(COOH), Amino(NHH), Sulfhydryl(SH), Phosphate(POOO), Methyl(CHHH)
What are macromolecules? What builds them? What breaks them apart?
Long molecules usually made of polymers. Dehydration synthesis. Hydrolysis.
What are the different kinds of macromolecules?
Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Lipids, and Carbohydrates.
What are the functions of proteins?
Enzymes, Defense, Transport, Support, Motion, Regulation, and Storage.
Describe an amino acid's structure.
An amino group connected to a carbon connected to an R group, a hydrogen, and a carboxyl group.
What happens when a protein denatures?
It unfolds and loses functionality.
What bonds form between amino acids?
Peptide bonds.
What are the levels of protein structure?
Primary (Amino Acid Sequence), Secondary (Fold), Motif (Collection of Folds), Tertiary (Final Folded Shape), Domains (Function Parts of the Tertiary), Quatemary (Group of Proteins that Function as a Unit)
What are chaperone proteins?
Proteins that assist in the folding of proteins as they are being assembled.
What are the types of nucleic acids? What are the parts?
DNA (store code for protein synthesis) and RNA (copied from DNA to form protein). A phosphate, a 5 carbon sugar, and a nitrogeneous base.
What is the loose definition of lipids?
Molecules insoluble in water.
What are fats? What are saturated fats? Unsaturated?
A glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains. Fats with only single bonds between carbons (usually solid). Fats with one or more double bonds (usually liquid).
What are phospholipids?
Lipids with a glycerol, 2 fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group. They form all biological membranes.
What are isomers?
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different molecular structure.
What are carbohydrates?
Loosely, they are molecules with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
What is a monosaccharide? A disaccharide? A polysaccharide?
A simple sugar. Two simple sugars joined. A string of sugars (called a starch when formed by plants).
Humans transport glucose as a ___________, plants as a ___________.
Monosaccharide, Disaccharide.
What is the sugar produced by plants to make wood? What is the sugar produced by arthropods and fungi to make carapace? How are they similar?
Cellulose. Chitin. They are isomers of each other.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm