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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does a prokaryotic cell divide?
Binary fission
How many replication origins are there in the prokaryotic DNA loop?
In which direction does replication go from the prokaryotic replication origin?
Both directions
All eukaryotic cells store genetic information in __________.
Chromosomes (most have between 10 and 50)
How many chromosomes do humans have?
Forty-six (Twenty-three pairs)
Which tends to have the most chromosomes: fungi, insects, animals or plants?
Plants (The Adder's Tongue Fern has 1,262 chromosomes)
Chromosomes are composed of _________, a DNA-protein complex.
Chromatin (40% DNA, 60% Protein)
What is the difference between heterochromatin and euchromatin?
Heterochromatin is not expressed. Euchromatin is.
Every 200 nucleotides, the DNA in a chromosome coils around a histone protein forming a ____________.
What is a karyotype?
An Individual's Set of Chromosomes
What is a diploid cell? What is a haploid cell?
A diploid cell is a cell with two copies of each chromosome (one from each parent). A haploid cell is a cell containing only one copy of each chromosome (example: gametes).
What are homologous chromosomes?
The two corresponding copies of the same chromosome present in a diploid cell.
The sister chromatids in mitosis are joined by a ___________.
What are the 5 phases of the cell cycle and what occurs in them?
G1(primary growth), S(genome replication), G2(secondary growth), M(mitosis), C(cytokinesis)
What are G1, S, and G2 collectively called?
What is the kinetochore?
The protein disk in the centromere where microtubules attach.
What are the stages of Mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens in Prophase?
The spindle apparatus is assembled, the microtubules attach to the kinetochores, and the nuclear envelope breaks apart.
What happens in Metaphase?
The chromosomes align themselves in the cell's center. This forms the metaphase plate.
What happens in Anaphase?
The chromatids are pulled toward the poles.
What happens in Telophase?
The spindle structure breaks down and a new nuclear envelope forms around the groups of chromatids.
What is cytokinesis?
The cleavage of the cell into two.
How does it occur differently in animals, plants, fungi, and protists?
In animals, a belt of actin filaments pinches the cell into two. In plants, a cell plate forms, forming two new cells. In fungi and protists, mitosis occurs in the nucleus.
How is cell division controlled? What two parts of the cell cycle are irreversible?
Checkpoints. Genetic replication and chromatid separation.
What are the three cell checkpoints?
G1/S (primary division decision point), G2M (commitment to mitosis), Spindle Checkpoint (decides whether mitosis was accurate enough to justify division)
What signal do cells receive to cause them to grow?
Growth factors
What does gene p53 have to do with cancer?
It is the gene that would normally delay cell division if damaged DNA is detected. Absent in many cancer cells.
What are oncogenes?
Genes that can create a cancerous cell if introduced to a normal cell.
What are proto-oncogenes?
Natural genes that can become oncogenes when mutated.
What are tumor-suppressor genes?
Genes that normally inhibit division of a cell. Recessive to proto-oncogenes.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm