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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where does the lengthening of the plant occur? Where does the widening of the plant occur?
Apical meristems. Lateral meristems.
What are primary tissues?
Tissues that result from division of the apical meristem (primary growth) and make up the primary plant body.
What are primary meristems? Name the different types.
The three types of embryonic tissue systems that the apical meristem gives rise to. Protoderm (epidermis), procambium (vascular tissue) ground meristem (ground tissue), and intercalary meristem (stem internodes).
What are secondary tissues?
Tissues that result from division of the lateral meristem (secondary growth) and make up the secondary plant body.
What are the two lateral meristems present in woody plants?
The cork cambium (produces cork) and vascular cambium (produces vascular tissue).
What are the two basic systems of a vascular plant?
The root system and shoot system.
What are the three basic tissue types of plants?
Dermal tissue (epidermis, sometimes cuticle of cutin), Ground tissue (parenchyma cells), Vascular tissue (xylem and phloem).
What types of cells occur in the dermal tissue?
Epidermal cells, guard cells (open and close stomata), trichomes (hairlike, reduce evaporation), root hairs (increase root surface area).
What types of cells occur in the ground tissue?
Parenchyma (thin walls, storage), Collenchyma (variable thickness, flexible support), and Sclerenchyma (thick walls with lignin).
What are the types of Sclerenchyma cells?
Fibers (long, slender, usually grouped in strands) and Sclereid (varied shape, often branched, singular or grouped).
What are the types of tubes that xylem are made of? How are the units of the tubes joined?
Vessels and tracheids. Vessel members are almost completely open, but tracheids have small pits between the tracheids.
What is transpiration?
The diffusion of water vapor out of a plant.
What are the differences between primary and secondary xylem?
Primary xylem comes from the procambium of the apical meristem. Secondary xylem comes from the vascular cambium of the lateral meristem.
What cells make up the phloem? What is primary phloem?
Sieve cells, sieve-tube members (more effective sieve cell), and companion cells (associated a sieve-tube member). Phloem involved in food transport.
What are the pored surfaces between sieve-tube members/sieve cells called?
Sieve plates or sieve areas.
What are plasmodesmata?
Cytoplasmic connections between cells present between companion cells and sieve-tube members.
What are the four regions of the developing root?
The root cap, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, and zone of maturation.
What are the two types of cells in the root cap?
Inner Columella cells and outer Root Cap cells.
Describe the zone of cell division.
It is a domed structure underneath the root cap. Its center is called the quiescent center. It is an apical meristem.
How does elongation occur at the zone of elongation?
Cells produced at the primary meristems become much longer than they are wide.
In the zone of maturation, what are the three basic layers of tissue?
The epidermis, the cortex (contains endodermis), and the stele (contains pericycle and, in some plants, the pith).
Describe the endodermis.
It is within the cortex and has primary cell walls impregnated with suberin in bands called Casparian strips.
What are the two basic types of root systems?
A taproot system and a fibrous root system.
What are the types of modified roots?
Prop roots (anchorage), Aerial roots, Pneumatophores (spongy root outgrowths), Contracile roots (pull plant down), Parasitic roots, Food Storage roots, Water storage roots, and Buttress roots (support).
What are primordia?
Bulges on the stem that will develop into leaves, shoots or flowers.
What is phyllotaxy?
The arrangement of leaves on a stem.
What are nodes? What are internodes?
Regions where leaves attach to the stem. The spaces between nodes.
What is an axillary bud? What is a terminal bud?
A bud that occurs at a node. A bud that occurs at the end of the stem.
What is a trace? What does it leave behind in the main vascular cylinder?
A strand of xylem and phloem that branches out into a developing leaf, flower, or shoot. A gap.
What are the types of modified stems?
Bulbs (fleshy leaves), Corms (no fleshy leaves), Rhizomes (underground horizontal stems), Runners and Stolons (horizontal stems with long internodes), Tubers (swollen stolons), Tendrils (climbing stems), Cladophylls (flat, leaflike stems).
A leaf has a blade and petiole (stalk). What is the leaf called when the petiole is absent?
What is a simple leaf? A compound leaf?
A leaf with undivided blades. A leaf with blades divided into leaflets.
How can leaflets be arranged on the branches? How can leaves be arranged on the stem?
Pinnately compound (paired) or Palmately compound (radiating). Alternately (spiral), Opposite (paired) or whorl (multiple leaves).
What is the mesophyll? What two types of mesophyll are present in most eudicots?
The tissue between the upper and lower epidermis of the leaf. The palisade mesophyll (tightly packed) and spongy mesophyll (air spaces).
What are some of the modified types of leaves?
Floral Leaves/Bracts (surround flower), Spines, Reproductive Leaves (can grow into new plant), Window Leaves (cone shaped with transparent tip), Shade Leaves (large and thin), and Insectivorous Leaves (swallow bugs).