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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are mycologists?
Scientists who study fungi.
What are some of the common characteristics of fungi?
They are heterotrophic, have several cell types, cell walls of chitin, nuclear mitosis, and some have a dikaryon stage.
What are hyphae? What are septa? What are mycelium?
Slender filaments of fungus cells. Porous cross-walls between cells of hyphae. Masses of connected hyphae.
What does it mean for a hypha compartment to be monokaryotic or dikaryotic? What does it mean to be heterokaryotic or homokaryotic?
Monokaryotic compartments have one nucleas. Dikaryotic compartments have two, and the ones with different genomes in each nucleus are called heterokaryotic. The ones with similar nuclei are homokaryotic.
How do fungi reproduce sexually?
Two haploid hyphae fuse. Sometimes there is a dikaryotic stage before nuclear fusion. The septa of the reproductive compartment seal. A spore is formed or, in chytrids, a motile zoospore.
How do fungi obtain nutrients?
They use external digestion. Some fungi are predatory and can snare, trap, or shoot their prey.
What are yeasts? How are they and other fungi important to humans?
Single celled fungi. Wine, bread dough, hallucinogens. Some fungi help in bioremediation because they can break down almost any carbon-containing compound.
In fungal symbiosis, pathogens and parasites both obtain resources from a host, but what is the difference between them?
Pathogens cause disease, parasites do not.
Fungi have a mutualistic symbiotic relationship to what in Lichens? In Mycorrhizae?
Green Algae or Cyanobacteria. Plant Roots.
What are the four groups within the kingdom Fungi? Which two are monophyletic?
Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.
Describe Chytridiomycota.
They are aquatic, flagellated fungi with motile zoospores. They are the most archaic fungal group.
Describe Zygomycota.
They lack septa except when forming sporangia or gametangia. They are named for a sexual structure, the zygosporangium. They form clumps of stalks called sporangiophores with sporangia on the tips. They reproduce asexually more often then sexually.
Where does a zygosporangium form?
The place where the two haploid nuclei in a zygomycota fuse in sexual reproduction.
Describe Basidiomycota.
They have a club-shaped basidium which produces basidiospores. Mycelium can either be primary (monokaryotic) or secondary (dikaryotic). Basidiocarps (mushrooms) are made of secondary mycelium.
Describe Ascomycota.
They have perforated septa. They have a cup-like ascocarp and reproduce sexually by ascospores produced in the ascus. Asexually, the reproduce with conidia produced in the conidiophores.
In a lichen, what does each member of the symbiosis contribute to the other?
Fungi give protection from the sun. The green algae or cyanobacteria produce nutrients for the fungus.
What are mycorrhizae? What are the different types?
Symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots that aid in nutrient absorption. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (hyphae penetrate outer cells) and ectomycorrhizae (hyphae surround outer cells).
What are endophytes? What sort of relationship do they have with their symbiant?
Fungi that live inside plants. They can be parasitic or commensalistic, but evidence is growing that they can be mutualistic.