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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What makes vascular plants different from nonvascular plants?
They have water conducting xylem and nutrient conducting phloem, which nonvascular plants don't have.
What are the four types of plants?
Nonvascular land plants (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), Seedless vascular plants (club mosses, ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails), Gymnosperms (have seeds), and Angiosperms (flowers).
How is desiccation (water loss) prevented in plants? What other adaptations were made by terrestrial plants?
Cuticles and stomata. Leaves, a dominant diploid generation, and structurally supportive vascular tissue.
Humans are diplontic. Plants are haplodiplontic. What does it mean to be haplodiplontic?
Both the diploid and haploid stages are multicellular. The diploid one is called a sporophyte. The haploid one is called a gametophyte.
What structure produces spores? What cells divide to produce spores? Do they divide by mitosis or meiosis? What structures produce gametes?
Sporangia. Spore mother cells (sporocytes). Meiosis. Gametangia.
Which phase is dominant in mosses? In angiosperms and gymnosperms?
Gametophyte. Sporophyte.
What are the different phyla of bryophytes?
Bryophyta (mosses), Hepaticophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts).
What are rhizoids?
Root-like structures that anchor a moss to the ground.
What are female gametangia called? Male?
Archegonia. Anteridia.
What does it mean to be homosporous or heterosporous? Are seed plants homo- or heterosporous?
Producing either one or two (male or female) types of spores. Heterosporous.
What are the three clades of vascular plants?
Lycophytes (club mosses), Pterophytes (ferns and relatives), and seed plants.
What clades of vascular plants are seedless? What phyla of vascular plants have seeds?
Lycophytes and Pterophytes. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
What are some benefits of seeds?
It allows dispersal, protects and nourishes the embryo, and introduces a dormant stage.
What are the four groups of Gymnosperms?
Conifers, Cycads, Gentophytes, and Ginkgophytes.
What becomes the seed?
The ovule.
An angiosperm ovule has a megasporangium called the ________, which is surrounded by the _________, which has an opening called the ________.
Nucellus. Integument. Micropyle.
What are two unique things that angiosperms have?
Fruit and flowers.
What are the two groups of angiosperms? Which is more primitive?
Monocots and Dicots (Eudicots). Dicots.
What are annuals?
Plants that complete their life cycle in a year. They are much more likely to be dicots.
What are some traits of monocots/dicots?
One cotyledon/two cotyledons, parallel veins/branched veins, rarely a lateral meristem/lateral meristems common, flower parts in multiples of three/flower parts in multiples of four or five.
How does a flower develop?
A flower starts as a primordium that develops into a bud called a pedicel. The pedicel expands into a receptacle which flower parts grow from.
What are the concentric rings of flower parts in a flower called? What makes up the first (outer) one? The second? The third?
Whorls. Sepals. Petals. Stamens (collectively called androecium).
What are the parts of the stamen?
The pollen-bearing anther and the filament.
What is at the center of the flower? What does it consist of?
The gynoecium. One or more carpels.
What are the parts of the carpel?
The ovary (later developing into the fruit and consisting of ovules), the stigma, and the style.
What do the integuments develop into?
The seed coat.
While an ovule is developing, two nuclei move to the center, and are called _______ ________. Three others move toward the micropyle. One becomes an ______, the others are _________. The remaining three move to the other end and are called __________. This sac of nuclei and cells is called an ______ ____.
Polar nuclei. Egg. Synergids. Antipodals. Embryo sac.
What are pollen grains?
Binucleate microspores with chemicals in the outer wall that can react with stigma. It also has apertures which a pollen tube can come out of later. Pollen are the male gametes of angiosperms.
What is pollination?
The transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma.
What is the process of double fertilization?
The process of one pollen nuclei uniting with an egg, forming the zygote, and one pollen nuclei uniting with the polar nuclei, forming the primary triploid endosperm nucleus.