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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Concerning the origin of mitochondria, what is the theory of endosymbiosis?
Mitochondria were originally independent, aerobic bacteria which were ingested by larger cells and formed a symbiotic relationship.
Why is Protista such a diverse kingdom?
Its members are not necessarily related and are artificially grouped for convenience.
What are some of the methods of protist locomotion?
Cilia, flagella, and pseudopodia.
What are phototrophs, phagotrophs, and osmotrophs?
Protists that photosynthesize, protists that ingest large food particles, and protists that ingest dissolved food.
What is binary fission? Budding? Schizogony?
The splitting of a protist into two nearly different halves. The pinching off of a small daughter cell that eventually reaches mature size. Multiple divisions of the cell occuring after multiple divisions of the nucleus.
What are the six lineages of protists?
Euglenozoa, Alveolata, Stramenopila, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, and Choanoflagellida.
Describe Euglenoids.
They are part of Eulenozoa. They can be photosynthetic, heterotrophic, or both. They are covered with a flexible pellicle. They have a light-sensitive stigma.
Describe Kinetoplastids.
They are part of Euglenozoa. They have a single mitochondria with mini-circle and maxi-circle DNA. Trypanosomes are a type that cause very serious human diseases.
What is a common trait among all Alveolata?
An alveoli below the plasma membrane.
Describe Dinoflagellates.
They are part of Alveolata. They are generally photosynthetic unicells with two flagella. They have few to no histones, and reproduce primarily asexually.
Describe Apicomplexes.
They are part of Alveolata. Many organelles are clustered at one end of the cell. One type of them causes malaria.
Describe Ciliates.
They are part of Alveolata. They move with cilia and are covered by a pellicle. They eject waste through a cytoproct and have two different nuclei types, macro and micro. Only a macronucleus is immediately vital to survival.
What types of organisms are included in Stramenopila?
Brown algae, diatoms, and oomycetes (water molds).
What is another name for Rhodophyta?
Red algae.
Describe Chlorophyta.
They contain chlorophylls a, b, and carotenoids. They are also known as green algae.
Describe Choanoflagellida.
They are similar to the ancestor of animals. They have a flagellum with a contractile collar surrounding it.
Describe Amoebas.
They move with pseudopods and are generally amorphous, although Actinopoda (aka radiolarians) have a distinct shape.
Describe Foraminifera.
They are informally called "forams", have pre-studded shells called tests, which help in dating things in the fossil record.
Slime molds can be plasmodial. What does this mean? What structures allow it to reproduce?
It is a giant mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei. Sporangium.