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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference b/w an active & an inactive plaque in MS?
1. Active plaque: evidence of ongoing myelin breakdown w/lipid-filled macrophages mixed w/ lymphocytes & monocytes.

2. Inactive plaque: inflammation subsides, gliosis present w/ little to no myelin.
What are the CSF findings in MS?
-Protein elevated, mild pleocytosis.
-Total protein > 110 & cell cts >55 make dx unliekly.
-IgG elevated, oligoclonal IgG bands in 90.
-70% have Abx to measules, smaller number to rubella, mumps, HSV.
-Myelin proteins detected by radioimmunoassay in CSF.
What is the most common degenerative dz & most common cause of dementia in adults?
What are the characteristics of degenerative disease?
1. Progressive loss of neurons-->leads to dementia, defects.
2. Selective neuronal loss,
3. No clear inciting event.
4. Lewy bodies
5. Neurofibrillary tangles.
What are the three morphological findings in Alzheimer's disease?
1. Neurofibrillary tangles
2. Neurtic (senile) plaques
3. Amyloid angiopathy.
What histological technique is the best one to view neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's?
Silver stain (tangle may push neucleus to 1 side)
How can one assess the degree of dementia of Alzheimer's patient?
# of neurofibrillary tangles, loss of choline acetyltransferase, immunostaining w/ synaptophysin, & amyloid burden.
What increases the risk of AD and lowers the age of onset?
1 allele of the apolipoprotein on chr 19, overrepresented allele in AP pts, & thus larger burden of AB.
What happens to gross brain w/ Pick's disease?
Atrophy of frontal, parietal, & temporal lobes w/ occipital sparing.
What are the elements of Parkinsonism?
1. Diminished facial expression
2. Stooped posture
3. Slowness of voluntary mvmt
4. Festinating gait (progressively, shorter accelerated steps),
5. Rigidity
6. Pill-rolling tremors
What is the basis for the inherited form of Parkinson's disease?
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Characteristics
-Affects LMNs of spinal cod;
-Neuronal muscle atrophy
-Loss of neurons in anterior horns of spinal cord
-dismutase gene (SOD1)
-Gross: anterior roots of spinal cord appear atrophic by being thin;
Progressive Bulbar Palsy
Involvement of cranial nerve predominates; aka Bulbar ALS
What are the 3 genetic metabolic diseases affect NS?
1. Neuronal Storage Diseases
2. Leukodystrophies
3. Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies.
Neuronal Storage Diseases Characteristics (ex. Tay Sachs)
Mostly AR, Cause: deficiency of specific enzyme req'd in nl catabolism of sphingolipids, mucopolysaccharides, so substrate accumulation.
Mitochondria Encephalomyopathies Characteristics
-D/o of oxidative phosphorylation
-Resulting from mutations in mitochondrial genome
-typically involve gray matter & skeletal muscle.