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33 Cards in this Set

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just for fun, name the top five drugs prescribed in 2005.
1. hydrocodone, 2. lexapro, 3. vicodin, 4. xanax, 5. adderall
what common ingredient commonly found in OTC cough and cold remedies has been involved in many ER visits with overuse reports of hallucinations, and a high like PCP gives?
DXM - Dextromethorphan
what is the common neurotransmitter involved in all abusive drugs?
DOPAMINE - relates to pleasure, motor, and cognitive function; serotonin is also usually involved (fxn: mood, memory processing, sleep, cognition); GABA gets inhibited
name the major structures in the brain involved in reward.
ventral tegmental area (dopamine supplies), nucleus accumbens, and frontal cortex
out of the 4 major dopaminergic tracts of the brain, which system is key in the reward system?
Mesolimbic dopamine SYSTEM - neurons originate in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and send projections to the nucleus accumbens; the MDS also has association with the amygdala (decides what experiences were pleasureable or bad); hippocampus (records the memories of the experience); prefrontal cortex (coordinates the info. and determines ultimate behavior)
name some drugs that cause dopamine release.
opioids, nicotine, marijuana, caffeine, alcohol
what is the MOA of cocaine?
blocks the neuronal transporter (blocks reuptake of dopamine, 5-HT, and norE)
what is the MOA of amphetamines?
release neuronal stores of catecholamines, esp. norE and dopamine (amphetamines may cause neurotox)
There are 4 main brain circuits involved in drug addiction. name them and some of there associations.
REWARD (nucleus accumbens and VTA); MEMORY/LEARNING (hippocampus and amygdala); MOTIVATION/DRIVE (orbito-frontal cortex); INHIBITORY CONTROL (pre-Frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus)
in chronic drug abusers the ability to achieve reward takes what?
more drug - brain gets re-wired
who is more likely to become a drug abuser, a dominant personality or a subordinate personality?
since drug abuse and psychiatric disorders tend to overlap, cocaine and methamphetamines can mimic what disorder?
schizophrenia, paranoia, anhedonia, compulsive behavior
since drug abuse and psychiatric disorders tend to overlap, stimulants can mimic what disorder?
anxiety, panic attacks, mania and sleep disorders
since drug abuse and psychiatric disorders tend to overlap, LSD, ecstasy, and psychedelics can mimic what disorder?
delusions and hallucinations
since drug abuse and psychiatric disorders tend to overlap, alcohol, sedatives, sleepaids, and narcotics can mimic what disorder?
depression and mood disturbances
since drug abuse and psychiatric disorders tend to overlap, PCP and Ketamine can mimic what disorder?
antisocial behavior
according to a swedish study, increased cannabis use has a portional effect to developing what?
what is considered the "stress hormone"?
what does dopamine do to cAMP and CREB to initiate tolerance and dependence?
at the nucleus accumbens, dopamine increases cAMP and produces delta Fos= these activate CREB which will give rise to proteins that are involved in sensitizing responses to drugs to CREATE TOLERANCE AND DEPENDENCE
describe the "steps" or pathogenesis of addiction.
acute (reinforcement, reward) -> chronic (tolerance, sensitization, dependence) -> short-term abstinence (withdrawl) -> long-term abstinence (craving, stress-induced relapse)
what does methadone, LAAM, and buprenorphine (very high affinity to mu opiod receptor; receptor will bind to buprenorphine over other opiods)do to what type of receptors?
activate/bind opioid receptors - this helps in reducing the reward value of drugs
what does nalonone do to what type of receptors?
blocks opioid receptors
what does nictotine gum/patch do to what type of receptors?
activate nicotinic receptors
how will a person react differently in regard to alcohol and drugs if he or she has an increased amount of DA D2 receptors?
increased amount of DA D2 receptors would give unpleasant effects with methylphenidate and they would likely not consume as much alcohol (since it's not pleasant)
those people with a decreased amount of DA D2 are more or less likely to become addicts, answer and explain.
more likely; they have a more pleasurable effect from the drug and will therefore use it again
Name the drugs that work by reducing pleasure from a drug experience.
Disulfiram (EtOH), Naltrexone (blocks opioid receptors), Buprenorphine (attaches to opioid receptor so other opioids can't)
Name the location in the CNS that is responsible for motivation/drive.
orbitofrontal cortex - becomes hypoactive during abuse
What is reduced in a detoxified drug user?
reduced activity of the orbitofrontal cortex (motivation/drive; integrates internal and external environ) and reduced number of DA D2 receptors in the striatum
what are mirror neurons?
a neuron that fires both when someone performs the action or when someone observes the same action performed by another; especially located in the premotor cortex (ps. i have no idea what this has to do with drug addiction)
name the locations responsible for memory/learning? why is this important in drug abuse?
amygdala and hippocampus; certain people, places, adn things will trigger or create an intense desire to do the drug again
where is the control circuit located and why is it important in drug abuse?
prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus(limbic system-emotion forming, learning/memory); drug abusers lose the connection between control and other areas like inhibition, motivation, etc.; When an abuser has reduced prefrontal fxning, an exposure to cues will cause over activation of reward center and under activation of prefrontal inhibitory circuits
how do you treat a drug abuser to improve the prefrontal cortical control mechanisms?
cognitive therapy, education, exercises (puzzles, computer games, crossword puzzles) and vertical integration