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156 Cards in this Set

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A_________ c_______ are the criteria that a system or component must satisfy in order to be accepted by a user, customer, or other authorized entity
acceptance criteria
A____ S_______ D_________ is a software development methodology designed for small to medium sized projects with uncertain requirements, which emphasizes people rather than process.
agile software development
Distribute requirements, resources, or other entities among the components of a system or program.
An a________ b_______ is the initially approved documentation describing a configuration item's (CI) functional and interface characteristics that are allocated from those of a higher CI
allocated baseline
System testing performed at the developer's site, often by employees of the customer.
alpha testing
The structural framework that partitions a system into its constituent subsystems and components. (See also system architecture)
(1) A characteristic of an item; for example, the item's function, color, size, or type. (2) In OO methodology a named property of a class for which each object in the class has its own value.
An equipment that is designed automatically to test and analyze the functional or static parameters of a system or subsystem, and to identify any malfunctions.
automatic test equipment (ATE)
a measure of the likelihood that an item will be in an operable state when called upon.
A specification or product that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development, and that can be changed only through formal change control procedures.
System testing performed at a customer's site without the developer's presence, and reported to the developer.
beta testing
End-to-end testing of a system or system element based on the specified input-output functionality.
black box testing
An operational version of a system or component that incorporates a specified subset of the capabilities that the final product will provide.
A comprehensive model for the assessment of an organization's software process maturity. Developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) under government sponsorship.
capability maturity model (CMM)
Acknowledgement, based on a formal demonstration, that a system or component complies with its specified requirements and is acceptable for operational use.
An element of configuration management, consisting of the evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to characteristics of the product of a defined task.
change control
In object-oriented development, a description of a set of objects that share the same attributes and other characteristics.
A state view of the system representing a set of classes and their relationships.
class diagram
The ability of two or more systems or components to perform their required functions while sharing the same environment.
A discrete, operating element of a system that is supplied by a discipline-specific organization. A component corresponds to the level of system partitioning below a subsystem, where most of the commonly occurring building blocks are found.
A c_______ m____ is a model representing the behavior of a system (or parts thereof) that is implemented in digital or analog computers (or both)
computer model
A configuration item for computer software
computer system configuration item (CSCI)
A tool for analyzing military and other mission areas characteristic of warfare, commerce, or other broad activities; usually involves "blue and red" teams of people and referees who oversee the total operation.
computer war game
Software-based tools for supporting the analysis, design, testing, and documentation of system components.
computer-aided engineering (CAE)
Software control of manufacturing processes, including automation of fabrication, assembly, testing, and documentation.
computer-aided manufacture (CAM)
Large-scale computing facility dedicated to executing complex computational tasks. Usually consisting of one or more supercomputers or assemblies of high-speed processors.
computing-intensive system
A systematic approach to the development of products and their related engineering processes that considers all aspects of the product life cycle from the outset, and involves specialty engineers (environmental specialists, reliability specialists, etc.) in the design process.
concurrent engineering
The c____________ b_______ is the system configuration as of a selected point in time that fully describes the system functional and performance capabilities and the established physical characteristics of the various system elements, together with the requirements for interoperability and interfaces with associated systems, as appropriate to the stage of the life cycle.
configuration baseline
An aggregation of hardware, software (see also computer system configuration item) or both, that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process.
configuration item (CI)
A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: (1) Identify and document the functional physical characteristics of a configuration item, (2) Control changes to those characteristics, and (3) Record and report change processing and implementation status.
configuration management
A c_______ d_____ r_____ is a review conducted to verify that the detailed design of one or more configuration items satisfies specified requirements.
critical design review (CDR)
Individual or organizational entity for whom the product or service is rendered; also one who uses the product or service.
An organized collection of the names and characteristics of all data, function, and control elements used in the system model.
data dictionary
A graphical representation of the flow of data among processing units without regards to the sequence of operations.
data flow diagram (DFD)
A flaw in a system or system component that has the potential to cause that system or component to fail to perform its required function.
A process or meeting during which system performance characteristics and associated hardware or software designs are presented to project personnel, managers, users, customers, or other interested parties for comment or approval (see also preliminary design review and critical design review).
design review
Management concept wherein rigorous cost goals are established before or during development. The control of system costs for the entire life cycle is achieved by trade-offs between operational capability, performance, costs, and schedule.
A d__________ s____________ (_ Spec) is a document applicable to an item below the system level which states specification performance, interface, and other technical requirements in sufficient detail to permit design, engineering for service use, and evaluation.
development specification (B Spec)
D__________ p______ p_______ and c______ describes the tasks that must be implemented in managing the development program. Includes statement of work, organization, scheduling, technical performance measurement, and risk management.
development program planning and control
A computer simulation which models the time-varying dynamic behavior of a system or component.
dynamic simulation
An analytical approach used to determine how well a system performs in its intended utilization environment.
effectiveness analysis
The individual or group who will use the system for its intended operational use when it is deployed in its environment.
end user
An alteration in the configuration of a configuration item or other designated item after formal establishment of its configuration identification.
engineering change
E__________ s________ i__________ describes how the areas of specialty engineering are to be integrated into the system design and development. Includes RMA engineering, producibility engineering, safety engineering, and human factors engineering.
engineering specialty integration
A graphical representation showing relationships between data objects (entities).
entity/relationship diagram (ERD)
The natural (weather, climate, ocean conditions, terrain, vegetation, dust, etc.) conditions that constrain the design for products and their life cycle processes.
The criteria against which a decision or set of decisions will be made.
evaluation criteria
A process that detects and locates the source of a system malfunction. Fault isolation systems are built into an operational system and provide automated detection of faults at a predetermined level.
fault isolation
A f______ is a task, action, or activity that must be accomplished to achieve a desired outcome or provide a desired capability.
The f_________ a___________ is an arrangement of functions and their associated interfaces (both internal and external) that defines the configuration, execution sequencing, conditions for control or data flow, and the performance requirements to satisfy the requirements baseline.
functional architecture
A diagram showing the interactions among a collection of interrelated functional units.
functional flow block diagram (FFBD)
A flow diagram that models the functional behavior of a process.
functional flow process diagram (FFPD)
A requirement that specifies a task, action, or activity that a system or a system element must be able to perform, and, where appropriate, the precision required in the performance of a specified action.
functional requirement
Human-computer interface involving graphics and object (icon) manipulation
graphical user interfaces (GUI)
A type of dynamic simulation that includes one or more actual system components operating in conjunction with simulated components
hardware-in-the-loop simulation
The process of translating a system element functional design into hardware and/or software components that will satisfy the stated requirements.
Support activities performed during normal system operation, including logistics and field support. System users often contract with third-party organizations for this service.
in-service support
I________ is the process that involves the visual examination of documentation or a physical product (e.g., software code, hardware equipment) against predefined criteria or characteristics.
I_________ l________ s______ (see also logistics support) is a disciplined approach to the management and technical activities necessary to integrate support considerations into system design: develop support requirements related to readiness objectives, acquire the required support, and provide it during the operational phase.
integrated logistics support (ILS)
I_________ is the merger or combining of two or more components or configuration items into a higher level system element, and ensuring that the logical and physical interfaces are satisfied and the integrated system satisfies its intended purpose.
I__________ t______ is a progressive set of tests accompanying the assembly of components into a complete subsystem or system.
integration testing
An i________ is a specifically defined physical or functional junction between two or more system elements. The term "interaction" is used here to refer to a functional interface.
The i________ c______ d_______ is a document that details the physical interface between two system elements, including the number and types of connectors, electrical parameters, mechanical properties, and environmental constraints.
interface control document
A specification, derived from the interface requirements, that details the required mechanical properties and/or logical connection between system elements, including the exact format and structure of the data and/or electrical signal communicated across the interface.
interface specification
A non-specific term used to denote any product, including systems, subsystems, assemblies, subassemblies, units, sets, parts, accessories, computer programs, or computer software.
The system or product evolution beginning with the identification of a perceived customer need, addressing development, test, manufacturing, operation, support, and training activities, continuing through various upgrades or evolutions, until the product and its related processes are disposed of.
life cycle
The total cost of the development, acquisition, operation, and logistic support of a system over a defined life span
life cycle cost
L________ s______ is an external system that provides services and supplies to the operational system; may consist of a chain of stations extending from the factory to the operational sites.
logistics support
A characteristic of a system element that is expressed as the probability that an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time.
The process of supporting a system in operating condition to correct faults, or improve performance or other attributes.
A person who provides technical and administrative direction and control to individuals performing tasks or activities within the manager's area of responsibility.
A measure of the completeness and maturity of a system design during development.
materialization status
A mathematical notation to represent a relationship or function.
mathematical model
M______ of e____________ is a metric which is used to quantify the degree to which the performance objectives of a given system, subsystem, or component are achieved. Commonly used for trade-off analysis of competing concepts.
measure of effectiveness (MOE)
A set of rules and criteria that establish a precise and repeatable way of performing a task to provide a desired result.
A scheduled event at which progress toward a defined goal is measured.
M______ s______ s_________ is a computer simulation designed to emulate complex system operations in a wide variety of environments.
mission support simulation
An operating condition of a function, subfunction, or physical element of the system.
A simplified representation or abstraction of reality used to mimic the appearance or behavior of a system or a part of a system.
Organization of a system into a coherent set of tightly bound and weakly interacting functional elements.
modular design
In object-oriented methodology, an entity with an identity that defines its state and behavior, an instance of a class.
A software development methodology that is organized around classes of objects which encapsulate data with its associated functions
object-oriented development
A systems engineering development methodology integrating object-oriented models into the conceptual design of software-intensive systems.
object-oriented systems engineering method (OOSEM)
A general category of simulations dealing with the operational aspects of system behavior
operational simulation
O__________ t___ and e_________ includes field tests of a system, subsystem, or component under realistic operational conditions for determining its effectiveness and suitability for operational use.
operational test and evaluation (OT&E)
O__________ e____________ is the overall degree of mission accomplishment of a system when used in its operational environment (see also effectiveness analysis)
operational effectiveness
The o__________ e__________ is the set of natural or induced environmental conditions, anticipated system environment interfaces, and user interactions within which the system is expected to be operated.
operational environment
O__________ R___________ are the statements that identify the essential capabilities, associated requirements, performance measures, and the process or series of actions to be taken in effecting the results that are desired in order to address mission area deficiencies, evolving applications or threats, emerging technologies, or system cost improvements.
operational requirements
The lowest element of a physical or system architecture, specification tree, or system breakdown structure that cannot be partitioned (e.g., bolt, nut, bracket, semiconductor, computer software unit)
The process of decomposing the elements of a system or subsystem into modular subsystems or components
A criterion that identifies and quantifies the degree to which a particular attribute of a function must be accomplished, and the conditions under which this capability is to be achieved.
performance requirement
The degree to which a system or component can, within a given set of constraints, accomplish its designated functions, such as speed, accuracy, memory usage, etc.
The p_______ i________ includes the electrical, environmental, human, and physical requirements and requirement constraints that exist at a common boundary between two or more system elements, configuration items, or systems.
physical interface
An arrangement of physical elements that provides the design solution for a product or process intended to implement the requirements of the functional architecture
physical architecture
A direct representation of some or most of the physical characteristics of the actual system or element under study.
physical model
A current system that is serving the same or similar purpose of the system under development; a previous version
predecessor system
P__________ d_____ is the process of analyzing design alternatives and defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and timing and sizing estimates for a system or component.
preliminary design
The p__________ d_____ r_____ is a review conducted to evaluate the progress, technical adequacy, and risk resolution of the selected design approach for one or more configuration items.
preliminary design review (PDR)
P__-_______ p______ i__________ consists of the planned future evolutionary improvements of developmental systems for which design features are provided during development to facilitate future application of projected technology or approaches.
pre-planned product improvement (P3I)
Product, process, and material specifications (Type C, D, and E, respectively) are documents that describe the essential requirements for the above parts of the production process.
production specifications
A preliminary type, form, or implementation of a system that serves as a model for later stages or for the final, complete version of the system.
A hardware and software development technique in which a preliminary version of part of all of the hardware or software is developed and implemented as required to assess technical feasibility, investigate timing, or other (e.g., interfacing) issues and to facilitate system user or operator feedback in support of the development process.
Q____________ is the process of proving that a product or process meets all its requirements
Q______ a________ is a planned and systematic means for assuring that defined standards, practices, procedures, and methods of the process are applied.
quality assurance
A software methodology featuring an incremental development process with a very short cycle time.
rapid application development (RAD)
The early construction and testing of selected components having a high risk or unknown characteristic for the purpose of risk reduction.
rapid prototyping
A selected set of previously conducted tests after a system change to reconfirm their validity.
regression testing
R___________ a_______ is the process of studying user needs to arrive at a valid definition of system, functional, hardware, or software requirements.
requirements analysis
Matrices that show the allocation of requirements from the system specification to the system elements, functional areas, processes, external systems, etc.
requirements traceability matrices (RTM)
A measure of the uncertainty of attaining a goal or objective, or meeting requirements pertaining to technical performance, cost, and schedule. Risk level is categorized by the probability of occurrence and the consequences of occurrence.
A process to evaluate the system design in terms of prospective uncertainty. It identifies the weakest and most uncertain features of the design and focuses on means for eliminating the possibility that these features will present future complications. Risk assessment includes the components risk likelihood and risk impact.
risk assessment
A measure of the impact or seriousness of a failure on the success of a project.
risk criticality
An organized, analytic process to identify what can go wrong, to assess and quantify associated risks, and to implement/control the appropriate approach for preventing or mitigating each identified risk.
risk management
A planning document, which is part of the overall program management process. It describes the tasks related to risk identification, risk assessment, risk prioritization, risk mitigation, and risk monitoring. The r___ m_________ p___ is part of the systems engineering management plan.
risk management plan
An extension of object-oriented methodology that links object-oriented analysis and design. It classifies objects into three types: boundary, control, and entity.
robustness analysis
An approximate calculation or estimation for comparison with a result obtained from a more complete and complex process. The differences in value should be relatively small; if not, the results of the original process are suspect and further analysis is required.
sanity check
A s________ m____ is a diagram or chart representing a system element or process.
schematic model
S________ c_______ is a set of parameters chosen from the requirements that define the solution. Each criterion is an essential attribute of the product related to one or more of its components.
selection criteria
S__________ a_______ is a procedure for testing the robustness of the results of a trade-off analysis by examining the effect of varying assigned values of the decision criteria on the result of the analysis.
sensitivity analysis
S_________ is a general type of modeling that deals with the dynamic behavior of a system or its components.
A s_______-e_______ s_____ is a hybrid combination of hardware, and software, and people, in which the principal action is performed by hardware, with software providing information processing and control. Usually operates in real time.
software-embedded system
S_______-i________ s______ are systems consisting largely of networks, computers, and users, in which software and computes perform virtually all the system functionality, Includes all automated information systems, and usually operates intermittently.
software-intensive systems
A s____________ is a document intended primarily for use in acquisition, which clearly and accurately describes the essential technical requirements for items, materials, or services including the procedures by which it will be determined that the requirements have been met. (The major types of specification documents (A, B, C, D, & E) are also referenced elsewhere)
S_______ p____ are parts and subcomponents that conform to a set of commercial standards; their use results in reduced costs and a high degree of interchangeability.
standard parts
A s____ t_________ d______ is a model of how the system responds to external events.
state transition diagram (STD)
S_________ a_______ and d_____ is a software development methodology that is organized around functional program units.
structured analysis and design
A s_______ is an element of the system architecture, specification tree, or system breakdown structure that is a subordinate element to a product and is comprised of one or more components and their associated life cycle processes. Typically a grouping of logically interacting functions or closely related technologies within the system.
The s_____ a___________ is the structural framework that partitions the system into its constituent subsystems and components.
system architecture
A s_____ b____ d______ is a diagram showing the units of a system structure and their physical relationships.
system block diagram
A s_____ c_________ is a system engineering metric which defines the system's ability to achieve the mission objectives. Examples of capability measures for a communication system might be maximum data transmission rate, connection capacity, and connect/disconnect speed.
system capability
A s_____ c______ d______ is a diagram that shows all external entities that interact with a system, directly or indirectly.
system context diagram
S_____ D_____ is (1) The process of defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and other characteristics of a system or component. (2) The result of the process in (1)
system design
S_____ d_____ d_______ are the product of the development process, which provides sufficient details, or other pertinent information on the system components, elements, parts, interfaces, etc., to permit the fabrication, production, assembly, integration, and testing of the system under development.
system design drawings
A s_____ d_____ t___ is a group of key individuals who exercise leadership and coordination in a complex system development. Membership typically includes systems engineers, lead engineers, software engineers, support engineers, test engineers, and often user representatives.
system design team
A measure of the ability of a system to satisfy its intended operational effectiveness uses when called upon to do so. System effectiveness is a composite view of how the system performs under anticipated environmental conditions.
system effectiveness
A s_____ e____________ s_________ is a computer simulation designed to emulate the overall system performance to aid in evaluating various system attributes and alternatives.
system effectiveness simulation
S_____ p______ is the result of the total effort required to develop, produce, and integrate a system, including any auxiliary equipment required for its operation.
system product
A s_____ r________ t___ is a procedure whereby a system goes through a test sequence prior to operational use, often using automatic test equipment under operator control, to determine the state of system readiness.
system readiness test
A S_____ S____________ (_ Spec) is a document which states the technical and mission requirements for a system as an entity, allocates requirements to functional areas or configuration items, and defines the interfaces between or among the functional areas.
system specification (A Spec)
S_____ t___ is a test of a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.
system test
A s_____ u______ is a planned set of engineering and production changes in an operational system designed to significantly increase its capability or reduce its operating cost, or extend its useful life.
system upgrade
The primary, top-level technical management document which defines the objectives, plans, responsibilities, and schedule for all systems engineering activities within the context of, and as an expansion to, the project plan.
systems engineering management plan (SEMP)
A document used in government procurement to describe the overall test and evaluation plan, designed to identify and integrate objectives, responsibilities, and schedules for all test and evaluation to be accomplished prior to subsequent key decision points.
test and evaluation master plan (TEMP)
T___ c_______ are the standards by which test results are judged.
test criteria
In military systems, the t_____ is the sum of the potential strength, capabilities, and intentions of an enemy which can limit or negate mission accomplishment or reduce force, system, or equipment effectiveness.
T____-___ a_______ is a formal analysis methodology, which provides a systematic procedure for evaluating alternative courses of action. A process used to aid in the selection of the best alternative for meeting a given objective.
trade-off analysis
U___ T______ is software testing at the lower levels of integration to determine the correct functioning of a program module.
unit testing
U______ M_______ L_______ is an object-oriented language for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the features of a software program.
unified modeling language (UML)
U____ are the operators and supporters of system end items, and the trainers that train the operations and support personnel. Also, the community who utilize the system to provide a particular service or capability, e.g., as in a public transportation or communication system.
V_________ involves evaluation of the capability of the delivered system to meet the customer's operational need in the most realistic environment achievable.
Verification is the process of determining whether or not the products of a given phase of development fulfill the requirements established during the previous phase.
A simulation that generates a three-dimensional visual environment that responds to the observer's position and viewing direction in real time.
virtual reality simulation
A software life cycle model in which all development processes occur sequentially.
waterfall model
A multiplying factor, which "weights" the relative importance of each selection criterion based on the relative importance of that criterion.
weighting factors
W____ b__ t______ consists of tests based on the known characteristics of the component tested.
white box testing
A product-oriented family tree division of hardware, software, services, and other work tasks, which organizes, defines, and graphically displays the product to be produced, as well as the work to be accomplished at each stage of the system development process.
work breakdown structure (WBS)