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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
System
A group of interrelated components that function together to achieved a desired function.
Information System
An arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support and organization
Transaction Processing System (IT)
a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology(hardware and software)
with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks)
Management Information System (MIS)
An information system that provides for management oriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization.
Decision support system (DSS)
An information system thatg either helps to identify decision making opportunities or provides information to help make decision
Executive Information Systems
An information system that supports the planning and assessment needs of executive managers.
Expert System
An information system that captures expertise of workers and then simulates that expetise to the benefits of non experts.
Communications and collaboration system
an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate.
Office Automation System
An information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers
Stakeholder
Any person who has interest in an existing or proposed information system. May include technical and non technical workers, internal and external workers.
information worker
Any person whose job involves creating, collecting, processing, distributing, and using information.
system owner
An information system's sponsor and executive advocate, usually responsible for funding the project of developing, operating, and maintaining the information system.
knowledge worker
any worker whose responsibles are based on a specialized body of knowledge.
System user
A customer who will use or is affected by an information system on a regular basis - capturing, validating, entering, responding, to, storing, and exchanging data and information.
remote user
a user who is not physically located on the premises but who still requires access to information systems.
mobile user
a user whose location is constantly changing but who requires access to infromation sytem from any location
system designer
a technical specialist who translates system users business requirements and constraints into technical solutions.
System builder
a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by system designers.
System Analyst
A specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology cna best accomplish for the business.
Internal System Users (List of Example Users)*3*
- Clerical and Service Workers
- Technical and professional staff
- Supervisors, middle managers, and executive managers
External System Users (list)*5*
Customers
Suppliers
Partners
Employees
Remote users
Mobile users
Remote users
users who are not physically located on the premises but who still requires access to information systems.
Mobile users
users whose location is constantly changing but who requires access to information systems from any location
System designer
a technical specialist who translates system users’ business requirements and constraints into technical solution. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users’ requirements.
System builder
a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers.
Systems analyst
a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.
2 types of system analysts
- programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer)
- business analyst
programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer)
includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst.
business analyst
focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design.
Skills Needed by
the Systems Analyst (8)
Working knowledge of information technology
Computer programming experience and expertise
General business knowledge
General problem-solving skills
Good interpersonal communication skills
Good interpersonal relations skills
Flexibility and adaptability
Character and ethics
External Service Provider (ESP)
a systems analyst, system designer, or system builder who sells his or her expertise and experience to other businesses to help those businesses purchase, develop, or integrate their information systems solutions; may be affiliated with a consulting or services organization.
Project Manager
an experienced professional who accepts responsibility for planning, monitoring, and controlling projects with respect to schedule, budget, deliverables, customer satisfaction, technical standards, and system quality.
2 other type of stakeholders
External Service Provider (ESP)
Project Manager
Business Drivers for Today’s Information Systems (7)
Globalization of the Economy
Electronic Commerce and Business
Security and Privacy
Collaboration and Partnership
Knowledge Asset Management
Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management
Business Process Redesign
2 things Global Economy brings
New and expanded international markets
New international competitors
Impact Global Economy has on information systems (3)
- Require support of multiple languages, currency exchange rates, business cultures
- Require consolidation of international data
- Demand for players who can communicate, orally and in writing, with management and users that speak different languages
E-Commerce
the buying and selling of goods and services by using the Internet.
E-Business
the use of the Internet to conduct and support day-to-day business activities.
Types of e-commerce and e-business (3)
Marketing of corporate image, products, and services
Business-to-consumer (B2C)
Business-to-business (B2B)
Impact on information systems (2)
Most new information systems are being designed for an Internet (or intranet) architecture
Since the only client-side software is a web browser, the choice of client operating system is becoming less important
Data
raw facts about people, places, events, and things that are of importance in an organization.
Information
data that has been processed or reorganized into a more meaningful form for someone.
Knowledge
data and information that is further refined based on the facts, truths, beliefs, judgments, experiences, and expertise of the recipient.
Knowledge Asset Management (3)
- Recognizes that data, information, and knowledge are critical business resources
Asks: “How can the organization manage and share knowledge for competitive advantage?”
Strives to integrate the data and information that can create and preserve knowledge
Business Processes
Tasks that respond to business events (e.g., an order). Business processes are the work, procedures, and rules required to complete the business tasks, independent of any information technology used to automate or support them.
Continuous process improvement (CPI)
The continuous monitoring of business processes to effect small but measurable improvements in cost reduction and value added.
Total quality management (TQM)
a comprehensive approach to facilitating quality improvements and management within a business.
Business process redesign (BPR)
is the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental business processes to reduce costs and/or improve value added to the business.
More substantial changes and improvements than CPI
Usually complemented by CPI
Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems
Networks and the Internet
Mobile and Wireless Technologies
Object Technologies
Collaborative Technologies
Enterprise Applications
The most pervasive networking technologies based on the Internet(7)
XHTML and XML
Scripting languages
Web-specific programming languages
Intranets
Extranets
Portals
Web services
Object technology
a software technology that defines a system in terms of objects that consolidate data and behavior (into objects).
3 facts about obect technology
Objects are reusable
Objects are extensible
Object-oriented programming languages include C++, Java, Smalltalk, and .NET
Object-oriented analysis and design
a collection of tools and techniques for systems development that will utilize object technologies to construct a system and its software.
Agile development
a system development strategy in which system developers are given the flexibility to select from a variety of tools and techniques to best accomplish the tasks at hand.
Collaborate technologies
technologies that enhance interpersonal communications and teamwork.
4 examples of Collaborate technologies
E-mail
Instant messaging
Groupware
Work flow
Systems Integration
the process of building a unified information system out of diverse components of purchases software, custom-built software, hardware, and networking.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
a software application that fully integrates information systems that span most or all of the basic, core business functions.
3 Representative ERP vendors:
SSA
Oracle/Peoplesoft
SAP AG
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
a software application that optimizes business processes for raw material procurement through finished product distribution by directly integrating the logistical information systems of organizations with those of their suppliers and distributors.
4 Representative SCM vendors
i2 Technologies
Manugistics
SAP
SCT
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
a software application that provides customers with access to a business’s processes from initial inquiry through postsale service and support.
7 Representative CRM vendors
SAP
BroadVision
E.piphany
Kana
Amdocs
Oracle/Peoplesoft
Siebel
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)
the process and technologies used to link applications to support the flow of data and information between those applications
Middleware
software (usually purchased) used to translate and route data between different applications.
4 Representative EAI vendors:
BEA Systems
IBM (MQSeries)
Mercator Software
TIBCO Software
System development process
a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that stakeholders use to develop and maintain information systems and software.
System initiation
the initial planning for a project to define initial business scope, goals, schedule, and budget.
System analysis
the study of a business problem domain to recommend improvements and specify the business requirements and priorities for the solution.
System design
the specification or construction of a technical, computer-based solution for the business requirements identified in a system analysis.
System implementation
the construction, installation, testing, and delivery of a system into production.
4 Step System Development Process
System initiation
System analysis
System design
System implementation
Project management
the activity of defining, planning, directing, monitoring, and controlling a project to develop an acceptable system within the allotted time and budget.
Process management
the ongoing activity that defines, improves, and coordinates the use of an organization’s chosen methodology (the “process”) and standards for all system development projects.