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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Localized - diamond shaped skin lesions from vasculitis

Generalized - lymph nodes and viscera

Cause of sudden death

Chronic - synovitis, arthritis, lameness, endocarditis


Control - herd vax and good hygeine

ZOONOTIC - fish handlers dz in humans from contamination of wounds
localized cutaneous infection
generalized with fever and joint pain
septicemic may cause endocarditis
Tx - high dose parenteral penicillin
Chemical irritation
surgical scrub
excess sunlight
extreme cold

Transient erythema
Reddening of hams due to contact with irritants while in transport
Blisters, peeling
CNS signs due to pain
Photosensitization in swine
cracking and peeling of extremities

Scrotum, feet, ears

May cause infertility in boars
Thermal burn
HEat lamps or fires

Scarred, blemished skin
Scald tank damage
irregular sloughing of skin
High fever
can cause erythema
Bacteremia, toxemia, viremia
Cyanosis of ears, jowls, and abodmen immediately pre and post mortem
Assoc with:
Severe pneumonia
Hog cholera
Porcine stress syndrome
Blood loss
Traumatic injury
Decrease incidence by cutting needle teeth

Castrate piglets at 1-3 days
Jowl abscess
colonization of oral cuts with Streptococci result in enlarged, discolored abscesses of head

Head may be codemned
Haematopinus suis

Only louse of swine

SMall, reddened pruritic lesions
Sarcoptic mange
Sarcoptes scabeii var. suis

papules/crusts on rump, flank, abdomen

DX - skin scrapings

TX - ivermectin
Demodectic mange
Pinpoint folliculitis on snout, eyes, abdomen, inner thigh

Pruritic lesions
Mosquitos and biting flies
urticarial lesions
Zinc deficiency

Usually a result of excessive Calcium

Non-pruritic skin lesions
Swine pox
reddened areas - vesicles - circular scabs

3-4 wk course in 4-16 wk old hogs
Microsporum nanum

Localized large circular patches of discolored skin and broken hair shafts

Older sows
Ptyriasis rosea
False ringworm

4-20 wk old white pigs

Starts on abdomen and inguinal area

Unknown cause - heal w/o tx
Melanomas common

Begin in utero so can be present in young pigs
Yellow belly or icteroanemia

Affects surface of RBCs

Jaundice may result from toxins from liver damage
Bleach out syndrome
Pale skin due to blood loss

Gastric ulcers or ileitis

Bruising under skin and paleness due to GI hemorrhage
Porcine Vesicular disases
FMD and Swine vesicular dz - foreign

Vesicular stomatitis and vesicular exanthema of swine

Umbilical - reach full market wt

Inguinal or scrotal - rarely reach market wt d/t incarcerated intestines, peritonitis, and death
Normal anatomical structure on some feral and domestic swine
Musculoskeletal injuries
Stress assoc w/ transportation
-swollen joints with blood tinge
Turning too rapidly
- fx of neck of scapula
Standing on slick floors
- torn adductor muscles "split out"
Swine cannot sweat

Results in death
Porcine Stress Syndrome
Malignant hyperthermia


Stiff gait, mouth breathing, cyanosis, Rapidly progresses to death

Pale, soft exudative pork
Idiopathic cartilage damage

Joint swelling and lameness in
Shoulder, hips, elbow, stifle, hocks

May spontaneously recover

CS - similar to infectious arthritis
Infectious arthritis
Synovial mmb inflamamtion and enlargement

Synovitis and lameness

Causes - Erysipelas, streptococcis, Staph, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, M. hyorhinis, Haemophilus parasuis
Muscle abscess, granulomas, discoloration
Result of improper vaccination or injection

IM injection
-oil based 60 day withdrawal
-water based 21 day withdrawal
-inject in neck; NOT ham
Iron Dextran injections
Given to piglets to prevent iron deficiency anemia

Causes skin discoloration

Discoloration resolves by market (5-7 mos)
Downer sow syndrome
Partial demineralization of bones to obtain Ca

Bone thinning and pathologic fx

Nutritional problem post-weaning

Assoc with
-heavy milkers
-Ca:P imbalance
-extended lactation
Skin contamination of C. tetani spores

Assoc with castration, tail docking, needle teeth trimming

Sanitation of environment and colostrum ab production important
Sternal bursitis
Enlargement b/w skin and sternum

Mounting other pigs, rubbing on feeders
Ionophore toxicity
Anti-coccidial drugs added to cattle and poultry feed

Skeletal and cardiac m. damage

Progressive muscle tremor, difficulty standing, death
Otitis media interna
Head tilt d/t loss of equilibrium

Strept May ascend to brain abscesses
causing circling and nystagmus
CNS infections
Strept suis type 2
Haemophilus parasuis
Salmonella cholerasuis
E. coli
Listeria monocytogenes
Streptococcus suis type 2
Dz of young pigs

Carried in tonsils of older pigs

ZOONOTIC exposure to carcass
type 1 and other strept are not zoonotic
Haemophilus parasuis
Following stress
Fever, swollen joints, lameness, posterior paresis, bacteremia/toxemia
Salmonella cholerasuis
Bacteremia + CNS involvement
Classic CNS signs (circling, head tilt)

Histopath - microabscess in brain
Tailbite abscesses
Improper sizing of pigs when sorted
Running out of feed

Infection go to vertebrae and muscles

Hindlimb weakness and paresis, purulent pockets in abd cavity

YOUNG - (up to 3-4 mos)
CNS signs and death if severe

OLDER PIGS - recover, latent carriers

Fatal in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, rodents

Shaker pig syndrome
Circovirus infection of fetal CNS cells in utero

Muscle tremors and shaking at birth

Usually survive and essentially normal by weeks-months of age
Hog cholera

Fever, CNS signs, high mortality

Affects stem cells in bone marrow

DDX - african swine fever, erysipelas, salmonella cholerasuis

Splenic infarcts and turkey egg kidney
Rare in US swine

Not vaccinated
Salt poisoning
Brain edema
36-48 hrs water deprivation
Follwed by unrestrained water intake

High mortality and brain damage

Eosinophilic brain infiltrates
Heavy metal toxicosis
-blindness or posterior paresis
-arsenic containing feed during pregnancy

-similar signs
-drinking from lead lined pipes
-antemortem dx important for proper carcass disposition
Organophosphate toxicosis
OPs control lice and mange

Salivation, diarrhea, tremors, shaking, posterior ataxia and paresis, recumbency, death
B-Viatmin Deficiency

Waste food feeding
Corn/milo soybean based diets

Histopath of CNS and sciatic confirms
Metastatic malignant melanoma may locate in CNS
Respiratory disease
No trim losses

Lost $ from chronic poor doing pigs, death losses
Atrophic rhinitis
Most important URD in swine

Crooked, bleeding snout, tear stained face, irritaiton by contaminants of turbinate bones

Bordetella bronchiseptica
Pasteurella multocida D and A
Swelling of snout from secondary bacterial infection

Cuts in gums from needle teeth trim, feeders, fighting, rooting
Inclusion body Rhinitis

Inflammation of URD, nasal d/c, sneezing

Young pigs
Bacterial pneumonia
Most important LRD of swine

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
-primary infection
-horizontal and vertical transmission
-impairs ciliary clearance
Pasteruella multocida
-secondary infection

Cough, firm plum areas of consolidation in cranial ventral lobes
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
G- coccobacillus

Hemorrhage, fibrin, adhesion of loung lobes to thoracic cavity

Lack cranioventral distribution

Trim losses
Salmonella cholerasuis
Gross lesions similar to A. pleuorpneumoniae and may coinfect
Primary bacterial pneumonia
Streptococcus suis
Bordetella bronchiseptica
Secondary pneumonia
Pseudomonas aeroginosea
Actinomyces pyogenes
Viral peumonia
Swine influenza

Explosive coughing in late fall/winter
10-11 day duration

Low mortality, diffuse interstitial pneumonia

Potentially zoonotic
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

Reproductive dz
diffuse intersitial pneumonia similar to influenza

High mortality and chronic poor doing
Can cause pneumonia
Predisposes to secondary lung infection
Roundworm larval migration
Liver white spots

Some reach lung, coughed up and swallowed, complete cycle in GI tract

Pneumonitis may result if several reach lung

Residual chronic lesions similar to chronic bacterial pneumonia
Milk spots in liver
Kidney worm

Roundworm migration

Tapeworm cysts

Uncommon in swine housed in closed facilities

D/t lack of access to earthworm

Lung pathology (abdominal breathing "thumps") and coughing
Gastfic ulceration
Common in swine

Production stress
Finely ground feed
Feed changes, excess whey
Copper toxicity
Vit E/Se deficiency
Roundworm infestation
Helicobacter or Gastrophirilium

Usually occur in pars esophageal (nonglandular)
Proliferative Ileitis
Lawsonia intracellularis
Garden hose gut syndrome
Necrotic enteritis

Distal jejunum and ileum (sometimes LI)

Hemorrhage early, thickening of intestines

Postweaning thru 13-17 wk pigs

Chronic poor-doers if recover
Transmissible Gastroenteritis

All ages susceptible (no immunity from infection)

Profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting

SI may appear transparent

High mortality in young pigs

Older pigs may recover
Two types
S. cholerasuis
-transient enterocolitis followed by systemic disease
-labored breathing/death form septicemia

S. typhmurium
-enterocolitis and inflammation
-malabsorption and hypersecretory diarrhea
-death or prolonged recovery
-survivors may have rectal stricture
-MORE ZOONOTIC than cholerasuis
Swine dysentery
Serpulina hyodysenteriae
Bloody scours

Does NOT involve SI
Post-weaning up to 6-7 months

Survivors are asymptomatic carriers
Internal Parasites of pigs
Nodular worms
Thorny headed worms
Asacaris suum
white spotted livers
ingestion of eggs
migrate to liver and lung, coughed up and swallowed and mature in SI
Trichuris sis

Cecum and spiral colon

Diarrhea and chronic wasting
Oesophagostomum spp
Nodular worm

Multiple nodules in mucosa of spial colon
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
Thorny headed worm

large pinkish-white worm

IH = grub or beetle

Attaches in ileum may cause peritonitis
Echinococcus granulosus
Cust may cause liver spots
ZOONOTIC - caused by eating egg found in feces of dog
Susceptible to bovine, avium, and human TB

USually asymptomatic

COnfirm with histopath
Toxic metabolite of Aspergillus flavus

Liver is target

Little risk to human

Fibrotic yellow or white liver and death
Intestinal emphysema
air pockets under serosal surface of SI
Rectal prolapse
small, uncomplicated - no affect on carcass

complicated +/- rectal stricture - accompanied by peritonitis which results in loss or condemnation
Unilateral usually

Infection with strept, brucella suis OR

Spread of infection during mating can cause repro problems (cull)

Advanced dz = wt loss, anorexia, death

CS = ballotment of testicle, enlarged inguinal LNs
Brucella suis
Uncommon and zoonotic
Usually left, can be both

Assoc with strong boar taint odor
Vaginitis, cystitis, cervicitis, metritis
Genital tract infections common d/t location of urethra

Ascending infection (usually E coli)

Persistent vulvar discharge after farrowing in combination with fever or anorexia

Tx with antibiotics or cull
Eubacterium suis
White spotted kidney
Leptospira pomona (ZOONOTIC)
Leptospira bratislava (ZOONOTIC)
-E coli

Chronic interstitial nephritis

Kidneys condemned
Polycystic kidneys

Clinically normal
Embryonal nephroma
Tumor that usually affects one kidney

Lobulated kidney looks like large cysts

Rarely metastasizes
Aspergillus ochraceus

Kidney = target organ; +/- liver

Causes nephritis, PUPD, anorexia, emaciation, death

Pork safe to eat b/c swine detoxify
Zearalenone toxicosis
Fusarium muniliforme

Estrogenic effects (prepubal vulvar and mammary development, repro tract prolapse, testicular atrophy, male infertility)

Pork safe for consumption
Kidney worm
Stephanurus dentatus

Ureters and perirenal tissue
May cause posterior ataxia or paralysis from larvae migrating along spinal cord

Extensive trim losses
Valvular endocarditis
Sequelae of erysipelas or strept

Sudden death d/t heart failure as animal grows
Vit E / Selenium Deficiency
Mulberry heart disease

Sudden death in rapidly gaining young pigs

Hepatosis dietetica lesions in liver
Ionophore toxicity
Damage to heart and skeletal muscle
Gossypol toxicity
cottonseed meal

pale, flabby heart and swollen liver

Reduced growth rate
Ingestion of muscle larval cysts of Trichinella spirilas in rodents, wild animals, swine carcasses, and uncooked garbage

US does not inspect for this parasite

No CS, muscle pain, decreased gain


Proper freezing, cooking, etc inactivates cysts

cysts killed by cooking, frozen, salting

Swine infected by oocysts in cat feces, tissues of rodents, cannibalism, garbage

Swine are asymptomatic
Nursing/Sukling pig
with sow in farrowing house

0-21 days old

3-10 weeks old
60-120 lbs
120-160 lbs
Foreign Pig Diseases
African Swine Fever

Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera)

Vesicular Diseases
-swine vesicular disease
-vesicular stomatitis
-vesicular exanthema of swine

Mycoplasma hyorhinis
polyserositis, arthritis, otitis

in nursery (3-10 wk) piglets
Mycoplasma hyosynoviae
arthritis in growers/finishers

3-5 months

Corynebacterium (Eubacterium) suis

Treponema (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae

Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae

Eperythrozoon suis
Actinobaculum suis

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Mycoplasma haemosuis

Brucella Erysipelothrix
Swine influenza Strept suis
Salmonella Leptospira
Cryptosporidia Anthrax
Nipah virus Toxoplasma Vesicular stomatitis
Enteric diseases of nursing pigs (7)
E coli Isospora suis
TGEV Rotavirus
C. perfringens C, A
C. difficile
Enteric diseases of nursery pigs (9)
E coli C. perfringens A
Rotavirus Trichuris*
Lawsonia intracellularis*
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae*
Enteric diseases of Grow/Finish (5)
Lawsonia intracellularis**
E. coli
G- rod; pillus antigens produce enterotoxin

ETEC strains most important

Watery diarrhea in nursery and nursing pigs

PX - vx gilts with ETEC 2 & 6 weeks prior to birth

TX - fluid therapy and antibiotics
Isospora suis

Exculsive cause of coccidiosis in pigs

Watery diarrhea in nursing pigs

No tx approved in USA
Amprolium is a thiamine analogue that is coccidiostatic and prevents uptake of thiamine
Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

Corona virus

Diarrhea in all age pigs, worse in young (usually die)

PX - vax sows

Intestinal villi are KILLED
Watery diarrhea in nursing and nursery

PX - vax sow

Intestinal villi are STUNTED
Clostridium perfringens type C
G+ anaerobic rod with spores

Bloody or watery diarrhea in nursing

PX - vax gilts 2x during gestation

TX - antitoxin, antibiotics

DX - PCR to ID virulence factors (non-virulent strains are normal flora)
Clostridium perfringens type A
pasty diarrhea in nursing +/- nursery

DX - isolation, PCR
Clostridium dificile
Diarrhea in nursing pigs

May be predisposed by tx with antibiotics at birth

Lesion = colonic mesenteric edema

No vaccine

TX - macrolide antibiotics
Lawsonia intracellularis
Porcine Proliferative Enteritis

ACUTE - bloody diarrhea in young breeding stock

CHRONIC - watery diarrhea in grow/finish pigs

PX - vax

TX - macrolides, lincosamides in feed at 8-11 wks of age

DX - PCR, histopath
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
"Swine dysentery"

Mucohemorrhagic colitis grow/finish

TX - tylosin, lincomysin in feed
Brachyspira pilosicoli
Porcine colonic spirochetosis

Mild lesions; no bloody diarrhea
Non-pathogenic spirochetes
B. innocens

B. intermedia

B. murdochi
G- rod

S. cholerasuis - primary concern is septicemia
PX - vax with MLV
TX - antibiotics selected by C&S
Strep suis
Actinobacillus suis
Haemophilus parasuis
Salmonella (cholerasuis)
Streptococcus suis
G+ cocci
Normal flora in URT, genital tract, GIT

Causes sudden death, meningitis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia

5-10 wk pigs

PX - decrease stress
Actinobacillus suis
G- coccobacillus

Septicemia in nursing or nursery pigs

May see pneumonia lesions
Haemophilus parasuis
G- rod; Glasser's disease

Septicemia and polyserositis in young

Polyserositis = pleuritis, peritonitis, pericarditis, arthritis, meningitis
Salmonella cholerasuis
G- rod

Purple skin - sign of septicemia

Enlarged spleen - bacterial septicemia

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
G+ rod

VX only containes serovar 2

Vegetative endocarditis**
Also, sudden death, septicemia, arthritis, dermatitis

TX - penicillin, tetracyclines in feed
Porcine circovirus

Clinical disease is rare

Causes pneumonia, enteritis, reprotductive failure

**Porcine dermatitis/nephropathy syndrome**

Clinically = slow growing pigs
RNA virus, replicates in macrophages

Late term Abortion storms, interstitial pneumonia, lymphadenitis

Spreads to lung and lymphoid tissues
Segmented RNA virus

Respiratory disease in all ages

High morbidity, low mortality
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
Enzootic pneumonia
Chronic pneumonia in all ages

Persistent dry cough

TX = tetracycline, macrolides

Classic lesion = peribronchiolar lymphoid hyperplasia
Actinobacillys pleumopneumoniae
G- coccobacillus

Pleuropneumoniae in any age

Sudden death in naive pigs

Prevention - vax
Atrophic Rhinitis
-nonprogressive (NPAR)
-progressive (PAR)

NPAR - Bordetella bronchiseptica
Minor growth depression, can become PAR

PAR - B. bronchiseptica + Pasteurella multocida
deformed snout and sneezing
Pasteurella toxins affect osteoblasts in the nose

PX - vax
TX - sulfas and tetracycline

**Ventral turbinates are affected first*
Reproductive Diseases (6)
Leptospira (pomona, bratislava)
Brucella suis
ssDNA virus

Gilts most commonly affected

Embryonic death, abortion **Mummified fetus (black NOT red)**

Gilts may return to estrus early

Stillbirth, abortion, infertility

DX - serology, PCR, histopath
Pseudorabies virus


Abortion, CNS dz, death, Resp dz, inappetence

PX - vax, erradication

Fatal in non-porcine species
Brucella suis
Problem in feral swine

Federal eradication program in effect in US

How many permanent teeth do pigs have?
Pig dental formula
2 ( I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 3/3 )
Staphylococcus hyicus
Exudative epidermatitis
Greasy pig disease

Affects piglets < 8wks
Brown, exudative spots on heads, axillae, and groins, anorexia, lethargy, depression
causes pruritis and anemia
Dermatosis vegetans
Semilethal hereditary defect

Macules and papillomas around coronary band
What is the best way to determine if a sow is in estrus
She allows mounting by a boar

Increased rooting and vocalization (not as reliable)
How many teats does a sow have?
Taenia solium
Pork tapeworm

Pigs infected by ingesting human feces

Cysticerci form in pig skeletal and cardiac muscles

Not pathogenic in pigs

Cysticerci and the adult tapeworm are pathogenic in man
Aural hematomas
Caused by bites from pen mates,
OR violent head shaking (possibly associated with mites, lice, or water in ears)
All in / All out
Works by synchronizing estrus and farrowing in sows

Rigid rodent, traffic, and bird control

Piglets weaned at 4 weeks

Lactating sows bred 72 hrs later with gilts

Sows and gilts vax for erysipelas, parvovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus +/_ TGE a week before breeding

Neonatal mortality rate is lower than with flow-through system, but may not be as economical since there is not a continuous production of piglets

Greatest return on pounds of meat sent to market
When are piglets weaned?
at 4-5 weeks
Strongyloides ransomi
Threadworms of pigs

Reside in SI of suckling pigs

Heavy infections = diarrhea, anemia, emaciation, death

Dx - fecal flotation
Tx - Benzimidazoles, ivermectin