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89 Cards in this Set

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French Indian War
Between Britain and the Native Americans. Put Britain in large debt.
Stamp Act
Unnecessary taxing in America by Britain
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired on civilians because supposedly somebody threw a snowball at them... fueled rebellion
Quartering Act
Unreasonable search and stay. British soldiers stayed in houses of Americans.
Articles of Confederation
(pros/cons)
the first constitution of the 13 American states
PROS:States had Power
CONS: No unified government
Founding Fathers
the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787: Madison, Franklin, Washington, Adams, Hamilton
Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units.
Federalists
Wanted national power
Antifederalists
Wanted states power
3 Branches of Government
Legislative
Executive
Judicial
Legislative Branch
Law making Branch
Executive Branch
President, cabinet, secretary of state...etc.
Judicial Branch
supreme court
9 justices
lower courts
interpret constitutionality of laws
Legislative vs. Executive
overturn presidents veto with a 2/3 vote
Senate
6 year terms
100 senators
2 per state
foreign policy and national issues
Congress
House of Representatives
2 year terms
435 congressmen
Based on population
9 for nj
Checks and Balances
Each branch of government has another branch that checks it, so that there is a balance in powers.
NJ Plan
a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a single legislative house with equal representation for each state...William Patterson
VA Plan
a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a legislature of two houses with proportional representation, based on population, in each house and executive and judicial branches to be chosen by the legislature. (James Madison)
3/5 Compromise
Each slave counts as 3/5 of a person in a states population.
Sectionalism
excessive regard for sectional or local interests
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
a treaty signed with France in 1803 by which the U.S. purchased for $15,000,000 the land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Bought by Jefferson from Napoleon.
Problem with Louisiana Purchase
Government had to decide how to divide the land. Free or Slave?
Failed Compromises
all tried to act as a "band aid" to the slavery issue. they were all just temporary solutions.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
an act of Congress (1820) by which Missouri was admitted as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and slavery was prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36°30′N, except for Missouri.
Compromise of 1850
The compromise admitted California to the United States as a “free” (no slavery) state but allowed some newly acquired territories to decide on slavery for themselves. Part of the Compromise included the Fugitive Slave Act, which proved highly unpopular in the North.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, which provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free states. The law was highly unpopular in the North and helped to convert many previously indifferent northerners to antislavery.
Kansas Nebraska Act
the act of Congress in 1854 annulling the Missouri Compromise, providing for the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and permitting these territories self-determination on the question of slavery.
Abolitionists
Against Slavery
John Brown
Violently against slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin
an antislavery novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, in which she presented realistic slave stories
Abraham Lincoln
16th president of the united states
president through civil war
against slavery
Lincoln Assassination
John Wilkes Boothe
Fords theatre
Soon after civil war victory
Anaconda Plan
The Anaconda Plan is the name widely applied to an outline strategy for subduing the seceding states in the American Civil War.
Sherman's March
Destroy and devastate major southern cities.
Draft Riots
NY...people not wanting to go to war and paying their way out. others could not pay and then rioted.
Habeas Corpus
requiring a person to be brought before a judge or court, esp. for investigation of a restraint of the person's liberty, used as a protection against illegal imprisonment.
Emancipation Proclamation
the proclamation issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in those territories still in rebellion against the Union.In itself, the Emancipation Proclamation did not free any slaves, because it applied only to rebellious areas that the federal government did not then control.
13th amendment
freed slaves officially
Dred Scott Case
slave who lived in a free state for a period of time with his master, upon his return he sued for his freedom on the grounds of living in a free state, he appealed to the supreme court who ruled African Americans were not citizens and therefore couldn't even sue in the first place... this questioned the authority of the US constitution and congress
Gentlemen's Agreement
An agreement guaranteed only by the pledged word or unspoken understanding of the parties.
North Advantages
Money
Bigger Population
Own land not ruined
Ports/Cities
Better weapons
Union
North
Confederates
South
South Advantages
Home field advantage
More to fight for
Better military leaders
Reason for Civil War
priorities of north and south
differences between them
slavery
sectionalism
Reconstruction
time after civil war focused on rebuilding a destroyed country
Physical Reconstruction
rebuilding homes, towns, railroads
Social Reconstruction
what to do with 3.5 million freed slaves (not educated, no money, jobs, or education.)
KKK
former confederate soldiers angry at their loss, still have a hatred toward african americans
Black Codes
any code of law that defined and esp. limited therights of former slaves after the Civil War. No amendments to protect them...can't own land, property, curfews
Political Reconstruction
Southern States Punishment?
10% voting to be loyal to be states
Republicans: wanted 5 military districts(not states) follow 13th amendment...punish south
Natural Resources which fueled industrialization
oil/coal (black gold)
Bessemer steel process, used to remove carbon from steel and iron to make steel
New building projects to use steel (skyscrapers/bridges)
Inventions that promoted industrialization
electricity
trains
light bulb
type writer
telephone
(opened jobs especially for women)
Andrew Carnegie
new business plan
stock for labor
tried for monopoly
Social Darwinism
Survival of the fittest
did not want market place to be regulated
Robber Barons
Paid workers poorly
Produced monopolies
Growth and consolidation
Sherman Antitrust Act
illegal to form trust interfering with free trade between states or with other countries to prevent consolidation of buisness
Where was the industrial boom mostly occurring
the north...the south did not have as many resources or as much money
Labor Unions
an organization of wage earners or salaried employees for mutual aid and protection and for dealing collectively with employers; trade union.
Rags to riches
poor to rich
socialism
government sets prices, centrally planned economy, high taxes
capitalism
free market economy, fewer taxes
positives of capitalism
higher standard of living
increased life expectancy
unions
innovation and efficiency
mom and pop to the big time
negitives of capitalism
arduous work
child labor
sweatshops
corporation
large business, 100's of employees, raise capital through investors, stock market
Confederacy
souther coalition in favor of slavery, led by Jefferson Davis and ALexander Stephens
Union
northern coalition that wanted to ban slavery led by Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson
secession
when a state or area seperates itself from a nation or country
fort sumpter
considered the first battle of the civil war, south won (charleston, sc)
Abolitionists
people who wanted to abolish slavery...john brown, harriet tubman, harriet beacher stowe, fredrick douglas
Eli Whitney
developed interchangable parts and led the industrial revolution
John Brown
started bleeding kansas
Harriet Tubman
a turtured slave whom after her escape led many trips on the underground railroad, saving hundreds of slaves
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote uncle tom's cabin as a white abolitionist who portrayed a sorrowful melodramatic story of a slave. considered a catalyst for the civil war
Election of 1860
basically a debate between slavery and non savery. Lincoln was elected
Popular Soveriegnty
People of the state decide it's course of slavery
Homestead Act
160 acres of land free
held for 5 years and then could be bought out
Great Plains
grassland extending through the west portion of the united states
How did government deal with the Native Americans
Set up reservations
The Dawes Act
Americanized Native Americans
Broke up reservation and gave Native Americans some land
160 acres each household
80 acres to unmarried couple
Native Americans received no money for any of the land taken from them
Indian Removal Act
Made treaties to buy out Indians on to reservations
Battle of LIttle Bighorn
Custers Last Stand
Custer defeated by Native Americans
Battle of wounded knee
Sioux defeated by US
Transcontinental Railroad
Spanned Entire Continent
Aided Trade and Expansion
Gold Rush
1849
found on Sutter's Mill
Rags too riches or failure
Vanderbilt
railroads
Rockerfeller
Oil
Carnegie
steel