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24 Cards in this Set

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Legal Tender Cases, 1870, 1871
On greenbacks issued during the civil war. Hepburn v. Griswold (1870) – ruled Legal Tender Acts of 1862 and 1863 unconstitutional, implied that later contracts might be invalid, jeopardized circulation of $350,000,000 in greenbacks. President Grant appoints new judges and Legal Tender Acts declared constitutional. These cases clearly illustrate how the Supreme Court can become involved in political issues.
(federal monetary powers)
Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873
First cases under the 14th Amendment. Louisiana Reconstruction state government granted monopoly to a slaughterhouse, putting 1,000 butchers out of business. Butchers claim violates 14th and “privileges and immunities.” Supreme Court declares it offered no protection against state infringement and most citizen rights under state. Established 13th, 14th, 15th amendments just for freeing slaves and establishing rights for blacks.
the privileges and immunities clause
Bradwell v. Illinois, 1873
women and the professions
Myra Bradwell, publisher of Chicago Legal News, after passing her bar exam to become a lawyer, she applied to the Illinois Supreme Court for admission to the bar but was denied on the grounds that she was a married woman no legally able to sign contracts without her husband’s consent. Appealed to U.S. supreme court under “privileges and immunities” clause – Court said practicing law not a right of citizenship. Admitted in 1890.
Minor v. Happersett, 1875
Mrs. Virginia Minor sued in federal court in St. Louis claiming she was deprived of her “privileges and immunities” by being denied suffrage. Court ruled that suffrage was not a right of citizenship.
suffrage for women
Munn v. Illinois, 1877
Involved Illinois state law limiting maximum rates for storage of grain in privately owned grain elevators. Munn fined $100 for charging higher rates for operating without a license. Said violated due process and equal protection clauses of the 14th Amendment and on the ground of exclusive federal regulation of commerce. Supreme Court declared public always has a right to regulate business operations in which the public has an interest.
state regulation of business
Civil Rights Cases, 1883
Concerning Civil Rights Act of 1875 making it a crime for any individual to deny full and equal use of public conveyances and public places. Supreme Court declared the 14th Amendment protected individuals from state action, not individual action.
discrimination against individuals
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific RR Co. v. Illinois, 1886
Added to the push for the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. Illinois law prohibited practice of different rates for long and short haul traffic. Court ruled that states could regulate only intrastate commerce, not interstate commerce.
states and the commerce clause)
U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co., 1895
First significant case under Sherman Antitrust Act. E.C. Knight Company controls 98% of sugar manufacturing. Court rules monopoly of manufacturing different from monopoly of commerce, and Sherman Antitrust Act just restricts commerce.
monopolies, manufacturing, and commerce
Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Co., 1895
challenged constitutionality of income tax imposed by Wilson-Gorman Tariff, 1894. Court found income taxes to be a violation of the Constitution, which requires direct taxes to be apportioned by population. Court decided tax on rental income and personal property both direct taxes. 16th Amendment negated this and allows income taxes.
(the income tax
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
Homer Plessy, 1/8 black, fined for not leaving a white-only railroad car. 14th Amendment ensured political not social equality. Court said “separate but equal”, separate was not second-class citizenship. Says Constitution cannot put the two races on the same plane. Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1954 – says states regulate citizen’s civil rights.
separate but equal
Insular Cases, 1901, 1903, 1904
Three appeals to Supreme Court – Dorr v. U.S., Downes v. Bidwell, and Hawaii v. Mankicki – raise questions concerning extent to which constitutional rights were bestowed automatically upon natives in newly acquired territories. Court worked out that some rights are fundamental and others are procedural. Congress determines. The Constitution does not follow the flag.
constitutional rights in territories
Northern Securities Case, 1904
J.P. Morgan, James J. Hill, E. H. Harriman, all combined to create the Northern Securities Company, which owned majority of the stock in both the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern railroads, and together owned enough to control the Burlington Railroad (a single company would control entire transport network of ¼ of the nation). Supreme Court ruled violation of Sherman Antitrust Act, that the company was a trust, not a stock company.
antitrust laws
Lochner v. New York, 1905
New York passed law limiting bakery and confectionary workers to only sixty hours a week or 10 hour days. Lochner was arrested for violating that law. Case was contest between due process clause of freedom of contract and the state’s police power to guard the health, safety, and morals of its people. Court held that 14th Amendment protected individuals against unreasonable interference with personal liberty. Put judge in position of legislator. Used due process to protect property instead of just guaranteeing a fair trail.
due process and state police power
Muller v. Oregon
Oregon limited women to only ten hours of labor in factories and laundries. Curt Muller, following Lochner, refused to comply with law. Brandeis, in defense of Oregon law, presented over 100 pages of statistics and opinions, showing the impact of long hours on the health of women. Court found that hours need to be regulated to preserve the health of women.
due process and state police power
Danbury Hatters’ Case, 1908 (Loewe v. Lawlor)
Found that strikers have to pay triple damages against the union for the amount of normal income lost due to boycott in a strike at the Danbury Hatters Company by the hatters’ union for not being able to secure union recognition. Court said violated Sherman Antitrust Act.
antitrust laws and labor unions
Standard Oil of New Jersey vs. U.S., 1911; U.S. v. American Tobacco Co., 1911; and U.S. v. United States Steel Corporation, 1920
Established “good” trusts versus “bad” trusts, putting into interpretation a widespread popular view that bigness was not synonymous with badness, and that large corporations were part of modern society.
antitrust laws
Hammer v. Dagenhart, 1918
Court ruled Congress had overstepped authority in Keating-Owen Act of 1916 banning child labor. Ruled Congress could not intrude into the powers reserved to the states by the 10th Amendment.
child labor laws
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co., 1922
Congress uses what power it does have to impose heavy fine on profits of companies employing child labor. Court decided tax attempted to regulate an area reserved for the states.
child labor laws
Schenck v. U.S., 1919
Schenck arrested for violation of Espionage Act of 1917 because distributed leaflets urging draftees to resist. Claimed protected by First Amendment, freedom of speech and press. Court announced every act judged according to circumstances. “No freedom is absolute.” Matter of clear and present danger, and the nation was at war.
radicals and the First Amendment)
Abrams v. U.S., 1919
Five Russian immigrants convicted for distributing antiwar propaganda. Court rules time of danger overrules freedom of speech and press.
radicals and the First Amendment
Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, 1923
Several women fired because hospital didn’t want to pay their minimum wage fees after Minimum Wage Board set up. Suit claimed that their individual freedom of contract had been abridged, the Court agreed.
minimum wage laws
Gitlow v. New York, 1925
Arrested Benjamin Gitlow for violation of New York’s criminal anarchy law. Court upheld conviction. Asserted for the first time that guarantees in the Bill of Rights also apply to the states because of the 14th Amendment.
radicals and the First Amendment
West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, 1937
Upheld state regulation of wages and hours for women and children. Reversed decision in Adkins v. Children's hospital by putting contract clause in different perspective.
due process and state police powers
U.S. v. Darby Lumber Co., 1941
Overruled Hammer v. Dagenhart. Darby Lumber Company charged with violating federal Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 establishing minimum wages and maximum hours for workers in interstate commerce. Decision enlarged definition of interstate commerce to include production of goods.
commerce and wages and hours