Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is required for successful movement?
1. feedback, 2. control of muscle contraction, 3. coordination of muscle activity, 4. motor system should calibrate based on learning
What are the actions of the motor system?
Basic reflex
Central reflex
Voluntary movements
How does the nervous system perform motor actions?
Feedback and Feed-forward
What is feedback used for?
Slow movements and to maintain posture.
What is feedforward used for?
to perform anticipatory actions and allows for rapid movements
what are the three levels of suprasegmental control?
The spinal cord, brainstem, and forebrain
where are motoneurons controlling axial muscles?
In the ventromedial horn
Which two tracts innervate primarily medial motor neurons?
Reticulospinal and Vestibulospinal tracts
Which spinal tract innvervates primarily lateral motor neurons in animals?
The rubrospinal tract (from the red nucleus to the spinal cord)
What has replaced the rubrospinal tract in humans?
the corticospinal tract
Neurons in the ___________ give rise to the ventral corticospinal pathway and innvervate primarily medial neurons in the spinal cord bilaterally, as well as neurons in the reticular and vestibular nuclei
Premotor cortex and neck and trunk regions
The lateral corticospinal tract originates where?
In the primary motor cortex, as well as from somatosensory cortices.
Three quarters of the axons (in humans) cross the midline in the _____.
Pyramidal decussation
Lesions of the suprasegmental motor system produces what symptoms?
Weakness, loss of voluntary strength, slowing of musclar contraction and loss of fractionation.
What are the characteristics of spasticity?
Increased muscle tone, hyperactive stretch reflexes, and clonus (oscillatory muscle responses to muscle stretching).
Where is spasticity more marked?
In antigravity muscles
Describe decerebrate rigidity.
Condition in which there is increased muscle tone in the extensors of the arms and legs. (Loss of descending inhibition)
What reduces spasticity and what does this suggest?
lesioning the dorsal root afferents reduces spasticity and this suggests that it results from an increased gain in the spinal reflexes
Give the example used to describe the production of reflexes that are normally suppressed.
Babinski reflex
What is the result of lesions that involve pathways that control upper limb muscles?
Loss of the ability to control fine finger movements.
In Parkinson's disease, why are the reflexes not affected?
Becauses the disease affects a extrapyramidal motor system (the basal ganglia in this case), so the corticospinal tract is not involved.
What are the three classes of sensory inputs for postural responses?
Proprioceptors, vestibular receptors, and anticipatory postural reflexes
Transection where can produce decerebrate rigidity?
Above the vestibular nuceli and below the red nucleus
Walking movements :
1. are generated in the spine, 2. do not require suprasegmental inputs, 3. do not require sensory input, but 4. can have individual component movemets that are graded by afferent inputs.
Name the region of the brain that will stimulate walking on a treadmill
Mesencephalon Locomotor Region (MLR)
How does visual information affect locomotion?
It affects it by modulating the output of the motor cortex.
What is the fundamental influence driving locomotion?
A type of nueronal circuit called a central pattern generator.
Where are the central pattern generating neurons thought to reside?
In the intermediate gray matter of the spinal cord.