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32 Cards in this Set

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appeal to special rules or principles
In an argument, the citation of rules or laws that an audience believes in, such as the principle that everyone is innocent until proven guilty
appeal to tradition
the technique of citing or alluding to well-known sources that are part of the audience's cultural tradition and that the audience is likely to revere.
aposiopesis
a breaking off of speech, usually due to rising emotion or excitement
apostrophe
a direct address to an absent or dead person, or to an object, quality or idea
Appeal to the probable or likely
a form of argument in which a claim is supported by reference to what seems most plausible or what one would expect in a given situation. such appeals are usually made when more solid or factual evidence is unavailable
archetype
a theme, motif, symbol, or character that hold a familiar and fixed place in a culture's consciousness
argument by comparison
a means of argument by which two situations re presented as similar (or dissimilarly), usually to suggest that what is valid for one situation should be valid for the other
argument by definition
form of argument in wich the writer defines a term by placing it in particular category, thereby claiming that what is true for the whole category is true for the particular term
argument from cuase and effect
a form of argumentation in which a cause and effect relationship is presented in support of another proposition. example: Children's television programs should not run advertisements for sugary cereals becuase such advertisement are contributing to an increase in sugar consumption and diabetes among children.
autobiography
the narrative of a person's life written by that person
auxesis
arranging words or cluases in sequence of increasing force
bildungsroman
a novel about the education or psychological growth of the protagonist (or main character)
canon
an evolving group of literary works considered essential to a culture's literary tradition
biography
the nonfictional story of an individual's life, written by someone else
chiasmus
two phrases in which the syntax is the same but the placement of words is reversed: ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country
cliche
an expression that has been used so frequently it has lost its expressive power
cosmic irony
the perception of fte or the universe as malicious or indifferent to human suffering, which creates a painful contrast between a character's purposeful activity and its ultimate meaninglessness
deductive reasoning
reasonin in which one derives a specific conclusion from something generally or universally understood to be true
delayed sentence
a sentence that delays introducing the subject and verb (or independent clause) until the end
dramatic irony (aka tragic irony)
a technique in which the author lets the reader in on a character's situation while the character remains in the dark; thus the character's words and actions carry a significance that he or she is not aware of
allusion
an implicit reference within a literary work to a historical or literary person, place, or event.
Ellipsis
a figureof speech in which a word or short phrase is ommitted but easily understood from the context
emblem
a concrete object aht represents something abstract; unlike a symbol, it has a fixed meaning tha tdoes not change over time
epithet
an adjective or phrase that describes a prominent or distinguishing feature of a person or thing
allegory
a narrative in which literal meaning corresponds directly iwth symbolic meaning; in n allegory, ech element symbolizes something else
anachronism
n error in chronology; a reference that is inconsistant or inaccurate in view of the time in whcih a story is set
epizeuxis
repetition of the same word with no other words in between for emphasisana
anadiplosis
repetition of an important word from one phrase or clause (usually the last word) at the beginning of another phrase or clause
foreshadowing
an author's deliberate use of hints or suggestions to give a preview of events or themes that do not develop until later in the narrative
euphemism
the use of decorous language to express unpleasant or vulgar ideas, events, or actions
analogy
a comparison based on a specific similarity between things that are otherwise unlike, or the inference that if two things are alike in some ways, they will be alike in others. often analogies draw a comparison between something abstract and something more concrete or easier to visualize
anthimeria
a type of pun is which one part of speech is substituted for another (in this case, a noun or a verb). This sentence also demonstrates hyperbole.