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67 Cards in this Set

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the reorganization and rebuilding of the Confederate States after the Civil War
abolitionist Senator from Massachusetts, was caned on the floor of the Senate by Preston Brooks after delivering a speech accusing pro-slavery senators (esp. Andrew Butler) of forcing Kansas to be a slave state
Charles Sumner
representative from Pennsylvania who led the radical republicans along with Sumner, did not want to reconcile with the South but instead wanted to “revolutionize Southern institutions, habits and manners” (his words)
Thaddeus Stevens
in between Lincoln and the Radical republicans with their ideas about reconstruction—thought Lincoln was too lenient, Radicals—had to much support for African Americans
Moderates (moderate republicans)
famous address in which he talks about his plans for the country (reconstruction), it ends with: “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as G-d gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bring up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.
Lincolns 2nd Inaugural
plan made by the radicals and moderates as an alternative to Lincoln’s reconstruction plan. Required: majority of adult males to take an oath of allegiance to the union, after that states could have a convention to write a new constitution that abolished slavery, reject all debts the state aquired as a part of the confederacy, and not allow former confederate officials to vote or hold office
Wade-Davis Bill:
Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction, where 10% of the voters from 1860 had taken an oath of loyalty to the US and accepted to Union’s proclamation concerning slavery, the state could organize a new government.
10% plan
shot Lincholn in the back of the head at Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865
JW Booth
pardoned any former confederate who asked and took a oath of loyalty (only former confederate officials and confederates who owned lots of property were not eligible for pardon), each state had to call a convention and revoke secession and adopt the 13th amendment
Presidential reconstruction
Military Reconstruction Act in 1867, which basically undid Johnson’s programs. The south was divided into 5 military districts and had to hold a constitutional convention and form a constitution where all adult males (all races) could vote, and constitution had to be approved by congress. Then the state had to ratify the 14th amendment before electing people to congress.
Congressional Reconstruction
He was a southern-democrat pre war, but was loyal to the Union during the war. He supported a more lenient reconstruction plan. Was impeached, but not convicted.
Andrew Johnson
laws passed by the new Southern state legislatures that severely limited African American’s rights in the South—kept them in a condition similar to slavery—these black codes made Northerners very angry
Black codes
chief commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau in 1865, founded Howard University (also was a Union general, I don’t know if that is important)
Oliver Otis Howard
organization was created to feed and clothe war refugees in the south. Also helped former slaves find work, established courts to deal with grievances between workers and planters, provided places for schools, paid teachers and established colleges for African Americans.
Freedman’s Bureau
some thought that former slaves should be given something to support themselves with. They thought that land should be seized from Confederates and redistributed. This did not pass congress as it infringes upon the right to property.
“40 acres and a mule”
an attempt to override black codes--granted citizenship to all people born in the US except Native Americans. Allowed African Americans to own property and be treated equally in court, and the federal government could sue those who violated these rights.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
slavery abolished
13th ammendment
granted citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, declared no state can deprive any person of life, liberty or due process of law, and said that no state can deny any person equal protection under the law
14th ammendment
a person cannot be denied the right to vote based on race or previous condistion of servitude
15th ammendment
The south was divided into 5 military districts and had to hold a constitutional convention and form a constitution where all adult males (all races) could vote, and constitution had to be approved by congress. Then the state had to ratify the 14th amendment before electing people to congress.
1867 Military Reconstruction Act
after the war, when the Confederate white democratic pre-war leaders took power postwar, a state was _____—all Southern States were _______ by 1876 except South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida which remained under Republican Control
law made for the sole purpose of Congress impeaching Johnson. Required the approval of Congress to remove any government official…Johnson then fired Stanton to challenge the law.
Tenures of Office Act
Northern democrat who opposed Lincoln (led the ‘copperheads’)..opposed many of Lincoln’s policies but did stay loyal to the union.
Horatio Seymour
Northerners who moved south after the civil war to try and make money off of repossessed and abandoned land
southerners who supported Republican Reconstruction of the South; old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals; some were former Whigs who had grudgingly joined Democratic Party before war; many owned small farms and didn’t want wealthy planters to regain power; others were business people who favored Republican plans for developing South’s economy.
first African American in US Senate (spoke less than other African American members of Congress); born to free parents in Fayetteville NC; 1845- minister in African Methodist church
Hiram Revels
Negro leader in Mississippi, was elected to the Senate in 1874 and served from 1875 to 1881; spent a good deal of his time as senator in debates on election frauds and disorders in the South; made speech for senate 1876- shows that his views were moderate, even at a time when white supremacy was rapidly being restored in the South.
Blanche K. Bruce
prohibited keeping people out of public places on basis of race and racial discrimination in jurors
Civil Rights Act of 1875
pay a share of crops (often as much as _ - 2/3) to cover rent and cost of seed, fertilizer, tools, and animals needed.
African Americans returned to plantations owned by whites and paid rent for the land they farmed.
Tenant farming
merchant could take some of crops to cover debt; furnishing merchants provided sharecroppers they needed on credit at interest rate (sometimes 40%); to make sure sharecroppers paid debts, law allowed these.
Crop lien system
When he was 40, he became a general. ___________ fought many wars in Tennessee, and he won most of them; started this discriminatory group.
KKK Nathan Forest
federal crime to interfere with a citizen’s right to vote, federal elections under supervision of federal marshals, (KKK Act) outlawed activities of the Klan; under these acts over 3000 members arrested in the South, juries only convicted about 600.
Enforcement Acts:
led North to victory in Civil War; election 1868- believed president’s role was to carry out laws and leave development of policy to Congress _ pleased Radical Republicans in Congress, but left president weak and ineffective; first term- sin taxes (on alcohol and tobacco, government could pay off bonds that had been issued to pay for the Civil War; second term- scandals _ secretary of war, William Belknap, accepted bribes from merchants operating at army posts in West, Whiskey Ring; Panic of 1873
Ulysses S. Grant
construction company set up by several stockholders of Union Pacific; investors signed contracts with themselves; greatly overcharged Union Pacific for work it did, and since same investors controlled both companies, railroad agreed to pay inflated bills
Credit Mobilier
group of government officials and distillers in St. Louis cheated government out of millions of dollars by filing false tax reports; Orville E. Babcock (Grant’s private secretary) reported to be in group
Whiskey ring
started with series of bad railroad investments forcing Jay Cook & Co. to declare bankruptcy _ scores of smaller banks close, stock market plummets; 1000s of businesses shut down _ tens of thousands of Americans out of work; scandals in Grant administration and deepening economic depression hurt Republicans _ 1874 idterm election Democrats won control of HoR and made gains in Senate _ newly elected Democrats investigate scandals.
Panic of 1873
former governor of Ohio; Republican nominee 1876; moral man untainted by scandal/corruption; wanted to end Radical Reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes
election day- Tilden won 184 electoral votes (1 short of majority), Hayes won 165 electoral votes, leaving 20 in dispute- 19 were in three Southern states Republicans still controlled (LA, SC, FL) _ Congress appointed commission of 15 made up equally of members of House, Senate, and Supreme Court (8 Democrats, 7 Republicans) who voted along party lines giving votes to Hayes; commission’s recommendations not binding if both houses of Congress rejected them _ after debate several Southern Democrats joined with Republicans in Democrat controlled House and voted to accept commission’s finding _ Hayes wins _ Hayes couldn’t have won without support of Southern Democrats
Compromise of 1877
proposed African Americans concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal/political; 1895- speech before mostly white audience at Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta _ address known as Atlanta Compromise; urged fellow African Americans to postpone fight for civil rights and concentrate on preparing selves educationally and vocationally for full equality
Booker T. Washington:
leading proponent of a “New South” based on industrial development, giving speeches throughout the country and writing articles and editorials in his newspaper; conveyed message of industrialization as a panacea, and had fierce regional pride and general moderation on racial issues, which were becoming increasingly contentious in these years
Henry Grady
with its plantation economy destroyed by the Civil War and Reconstruction, the South would develop a new economy more attuned to the industrial capitalism that defined the rest of the American economy
New South
upheld separate-but-equal doctrine used by Southern states to perpetuate segregation after the Civil War officially ended law-mandated segregation; decision upheld a Louisiana law requiring passenger trains to have “equal but separated accommodations for the white and colored races;” Court held that 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause required only equal public facilities for the two races, not equal access; overruled by Brown v. Board (1954)
Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)
Does the Civil Rights Act of 1875 violate the 10th Amendment of the Constitution which reserves all powers not granted to the national government to the states or to the people?; conclusion- The Fourteenth Amendment restrains only state action. And the fifth section of the Amendment empowers Congress only to enforce the prohibition on state action. The amendment did not authorize national legislation on subjects which are within the domain of the state. Private acts of racial discrimination were simply private wrongs that the national government was powerless to correct
Civil Rights Cases 1883
statutes/laws created to enforce segregation; came from name of character popularized by slavery-era blackface minstrel (white musical stage performer who darkened his face with makeup and crudely imitated supposed African American behavior)
Jim Crow Laws
invented lightbulb, phonograph
Thomas Edison
Inventor and journalist
Helped develop the first practical typewriter.
Designed the typewriter in 1867 and patented it in 1868. he and Jame Densmore improved the typewriter and began to manufacture it in 1870.
Christopher Sholes
A business structure in which an individual and his/her company are considered a single entity for tax and liability purposes. This means that if the business fails, any of your assets, including your personal assets, can be seized to discharge the liabilities owing. On the positive side, a sole proprietorship is the easiest form of business to set up. If you operate your business under your own name, with no additions, you don't even need to register your business name to start operating as this
Sole Proprietorship
employed by George Bissell to conduct drilling operations.
1859 = discovered oil.
Drilled a well near Titusville, Pa. Drake used an old steam engine to power the drill. After Drake's well began to produce oil, other prospectors’ drilled wells nearby.
Within three years, so much oil was being produced in the area that the price of a barrel dropped from $20 to 10 cents.
The well is nicknamed “Drake’s Folly”
His discovery was the birth of the petroleum industry in pennsylvania
he was totally screwed over, never got paid, died in poverty
Edwin Drake
produced steel using the Bessemer process (cheaper and more efficient)
Pushed for horizontal integration: combining many firms engaged in the same type of business into one large corporation.
The Homestead Strike: throughout the Homestead incident, he remained silent. Previously, he had claimed to support labor unions and oppose the use of force to end a strike. He thus kept his reputation as a supporter of workers' rights. Later, many people criticized his silence, which they interpreted as approval of Frick's actions.
Believed in Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie
soften the harsh view of Social Darwinism and laisez-faire
Held that wealthy Americans bore the responsibly of engaging in philanthropy (using their great fortunes to furthers social progress).
The Gospel of Wealth
established The Standard Oil Company,
By the end of the 1870's, it owned the chief refineries in Cleveland, New York City, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia.
Built tank cars and distribution systems to transport oil. His dealings with railroads involved rebates and other types of privileged treatment.
1882 = he organized the Standard Oil Trust.
The Ohio Supreme Court tried to dissolve the Standard Oil Trust in 1892. The Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), a holding company, replaced the trust. In 1911, the Supreme Court of the United States ordered the firm to dissolve.
he gave away about $520 million during his lifetime.
He gave most of this money to the public through foundations that he established himself and through other organizations.
J. D. Rockefeller
the belief that people in society compete for survival and that superior individuals, social groups, and races become powerful and wealthy
Individuals or groups must compete with one another to survive. The principles of natural selection favor the survival of the fittest members of society. Such individuals or groups adapt successfully to the social environment, while those that are unfit fail to do so.
Poverty, according to the theory, proves an individual's or group's unfitness.
Social Darwinism
people who loot an industry and give nothing back.
The great wealth many railroad entrepreneurs acquired in the late 1800s le d to accusations that they had built their fortunes by swindling investors and taxpayers, bribing government, and cheating on their contracts and debts.
Jay Gould has the worst reputation for this
Robber barons/captains of industry
Trusts = bring surviving competitors under informal common control in organizations. Limited production and raised prices.
The act outlaws any contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of trade.
Prohibits any person or business from monopolizing or trying to monopolize any market.
They prohibit price fixing agreements, in which business firms agree on the price they will charge for products or services.
Outlaw mergers that interfere with competition. wasn't really enforced, didn't really accomplish anything, but set a precedent.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
a series of western state laws passed after the Civil War to regulate grain elevator and railroad freight rates and rebates and to address long and short haul discrimination and other railroad abuses against farmers. When the Supreme Court declared several of these laws unconstitutional, the federal Interstate Commerce Act was passed to secure the same reforms. These were supported by a group of the same name.
Granger Laws
Owners of railroads and grain elevators denounced the laws as interference with interstate commerce (trade between states), and violation of property rights.
The most important Granger case
Court ruled that property which affected the community at large "must submit to be controlled by the public for the common good."
Munn V. Illinois
held that states have no authority to regulate railroad rates for interstate commerce.
Wabash case: (1886)
The commerce clause allowed states to enforce “indirect” but not “direct” burdens on interstate commerce. State railroad rates were ruled “direct” burdens and therefore could not be enforced by states.
The decision created a precedent by establishing rate regulation of interstate commerce as an exclusive federal power.
Wabash case: (1886)
In 1866 founded the fist national farm organization, the Patrons of Husbandry – known as the Grange
Oliver Kelly
signed in 1862 by Abraham Lincoln
This act provided for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by two corporations, the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroad companies.
To encourage rapid construction, the government offered each company land along its right-of way. Feverish competition between the two companies developed, as each sought to obtain as much public land and money as possible.
Pacific Railway Act
1887 = the first federal law designated to regulate interstate commerce
The legislation limited railroad rates to what was “reasonable and just” forbade rebates to high-volume users, and made illegal to charge higher rates for shorter hauls. The commission was not very effective in regulating the industry because it had to rely on the courts to enforce its rulings.
ICC-IC Act: (Interstate Commerce Commission)
prohibited all Chinese laborers from immigrating to the United States. The act permitted only merchants, teachers, and certain other groups from China to come to the United States.
The act was the first of numerous restrictions the U.S. government was to place on Asian immigration. The restrictions resulted in part because many American workers feared job competition from Asians, many of whom would work for low wages. In addition, some Americans argued that Asians could not be assimilated into American society because of their physical and cultural differences.
Chinese Exclusion Act
In the 1890's, many persons feared that workers coming to the United States from Japan would take all the jobs and put them out of work. They wanted Congress to pass a law preventing further immigration. Japan protested, and made the gentlemen's agreement of 1908 instead. Japan promised to halt unrestricted emigration to the United States. In return, President Theodore Roosevelt promised to discourage any law limiting Japanese immigration. Since then, the term has been applied to any measure agreed upon by a class or group of people, but not made into law, that affects the welfare of another group.
Gentleman’s Agreement
the New York Democratic political machine.
Many scandals have darkened the organization's history. The most famous one was exposed in 1871, when Tweed and others were arrested and charged with defrauding New York City of several million dollars.
The organization soon regained its power and dominated much of the city's politics until 1933.
Tammany Hall
Swindled New York City out of millions of dollars.
1860's =became head of Tammany Hall, a powerful group of Democratic politicians.
He organized his associates into the (his name) Ring,
Sponsored schemes for city improvements.
Millions of dollars went into the pockets of (his name) Ring members.
1871 = the ring was broken up.
was jailed in 1873 but escaped to Spain in 1876.
Later that year, the Spanish government returned him to the United States.
Boss Tweed
the threat to Western civilization said to arise from the power of Asiatic peoples
The power or alleged power of Asiatic peoples, esp. the Chinese, to threaten or destroy the supremacy of White or Western civilization
“Yellow peril”