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191 Cards in this Set

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Italian artist and art historian who coined the word "Rinascita" later called Renaissance
Vasari
4.I.i.
Few essentials that reduce the period of the Renaissance
rediscovery of man and the world; renewed sense of joy in life; asceticism and symbolism replaced by sensuousness and naturalism; idealism replaced by realism; experimentation in pursuit of knowledge displacing tradition
4.II.i.
Renaissance humanists offered a set of secular and cultural values that ______________ the power of the papacy
threatened to replace
4.I.iii.
The Renaissance humanists achieved what remarkable thing?
pan-European culture and style that were won by sheer intelectual virtuosity
5.I.i.
France and England were born as nations after what war?
Hundred Years' War
5.I.iii.
The unity of Spain was cemented by what marriage?
marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille (1469)
5.I.iii.
What did the smaller states, Germany and Italy, and nation-states,France and England, have in common?
urge to develop strong communal loyalties
5.I.iv.
By the end of 15th century, how many major states existed?
7
5.I.v.
What kingdom was a distputed territory between the Houses of Anjou and Aragon?
Kingdom of Naples
5.I.v.
What house finally won the Kingdom of Naples and in what year?
House of Aragon, 1435
(also controlled Sicily)
5.I.v.
The papal states acted as a buffer between the ________ south and the _________ north.
feudal, commercial
5.I.v.
In the north of Italy, what large cities and principalities existed?
Duchy of Ferrara, Republic of Florence, Republic of Siena, Venitian Republic, Milan
5.I.v.
In the north of Italy, what smaller cities and principilaties existed?
Duchy of Mantua, Duchy of Modena, Florence (dominant)
5.I.v
Where did the Renaissance first flourish?
Northern Italy
5.II.i.
Since the late 13th century, Milan had been ruled by what family?
Visconti
(male line died in 1447)
5.II.i.
What condotierro made himself Duke of Milan by starving the city into submission?
Francesco Sforza
5.II.i.
The Duchy of Ferrara was governed by the ________ family.
Este
5.II.i.
The Duchy of Mantua was governed by the ________ family.
Ganzagas
5.II.i.
The papal states were never fully subjected to the papacy until the reign of what most immoral pope?
Alexander VI
5.II.i.
Who was the "warrior pope"?
Julius II
5.II.i.
Who was the successor of Pope Julius II?
Leo X (Medici)
5.II.i.
What states were the outstanding republics?
Florence, Venice, Siena
5.II.ii.
What type of government governed Siena?
oligarchy
5.II.ii.
What type of government governed Venice?
mercantile oligarchy
5.II.ii.
In what state did the first manifestation of Renaissance begin?
Florence
5.II.iii.
What Italian state was the last Republic in the 16th century?
Venice
5.II.iii.
What Italian state had been the most stable than the othern states?
Venice
5.II.iv.
Why was Venice the most stable Italian state?
uniform seafaring interest of the people, had a constitution
5.II.iv.
Who were the Ghibellines?
those who favored and relied on the old Imperial connection
5.II.iv.
Who were the Guelphs?
those who were opposed to the old Imperial connection and looked to the papacy for support
5.II.iv.
What bourgeois were declining?
Those that were tied up in the woolen guilds
5.II.v.
Why were the guilds losing influence in society?
they lost control of their own members
6.I.i.
What were the high roads of wealth that were traveled by a minority?
Individual and joint stock ventures
6.I.ii.
What were the lower classes below the bourgesie?
artisans, petit bourgeois, small farmers and tenants, copyholders
6.I.iii.
Who were copyholders?
people who enjoyed the use of land for certain terms of years in return for prescribed services
6.I.iii.
What was another social transformation due to the Renaissance?
pacification of the nobility
(adjusted themselves to new conditions)
6.I.iv.
The Renaissance saw the quickening of a what process?
laicization (secularize)
6.II.iii.
Who wrote "The Divine Comedy"?
Dante
7.I.ii.
Antiquity was an ideal, a source of inspiration, and sometimes an ____________.
obstruction
7.I.ii.
What language became the universal language?
Latin
7.I.iii.
What devout classicists helped make their native Tuscan the language of Italy?
Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio
7.I.iv.
Humanists helped to set __________ by using them in their works.
vernacular language
7.I.iv.
These men settled the vernacular language in their nations by their works: _______ and _______ in England, _________ in France and _________ in Spain.
Wycliffe, Chaucer (England)
Rabelais (France)
Cervantes (Spain)
7.I.iv.
What does "humanitas" mean?
literary refinement and mental cultivation that went beyond academic discipline
7.II.ii.
Who wrote "The Courtier"?
Castiglione
7.II.ii.
What state had the "tripartite constitution"?
Milan
7
What were the 3 classes of Milan?
1.)great nobles
2.)lesser nobles
(knights & squires)
3.)non-nobles (plebians)
8
Who were the chief officers of the plebians?
the captain and podesta of the people
8
Who were the first despots of Milan?
Della-Torre
8
Who were the leaders of the Guelf faction in Milan?
Della-Torre
8
Who were the leaders of the Ghibelline faction?
Visconti (rival of Della-Torre)
8
In 1277, who became Lord of Milan?
Archbishop Ottone Visconti
8
The visit of what ruler to Italy was used by the Visconti to regain their dominant position from the Della Tore?
Emperor Henry VII
8
What family had a policy of territorial aggression, that constantly brought them into conflict with the papacy?
Visconti
8
Who were the most important acquisitions of the family?
Pavia, Piacenza, Bergamo, Brescia, and Parma
8
Why did the Visconti become popular with their subjects that resulted in their role as being recognized as hereditary?
they looked after the prosperity and security of Milan
8
The great period of the Visconti in 1354 began with what two joint brother-rulers?
Galeazoo and Bernab
8
Galeazoo recieved the ________ part of Milan and Bernab receieved the _________ part of Milan.
western, eastern
8
In what year did the brothers unite to take Pavia, where Galeazzo set up his residence and put up a university?
1359
8
In 1378 Galeazzo died, leaving his domains to ________________, his son.
Gian Galeazzo
Bernab laid claim to ____ illegitimate children besides ____ legitimate children.
20,16
8
Bernab is noted for his ______, working hard at the business of government, and issued game laws of inhuman severity.
violence of temper
8
Bernab was though of as the ____________.
Defender of the poor
8
In 1385, Gian Galeazzo took who prisoner where he died not long afterwards?
Bernab
8
Who was the greatest of the Visconti?
Gian Galeazzo
8
What title did Gian Galeazzo purchase from the Holy Roman Emperor?
Duke of Milan
8
Gian was able to dominate all of northern Italy,except what city-state?
Venice
9
Who was Milan's rival and enemy?
Florence
9
What causes Gian Galeazzo's failure of the siege against Florence in 1402?
his sickness and death
9
Who was Gian Galeazzo's heir?
his oldest son, Giovanni Maria (murdered in church, 1412)
9
Who was the heir Giovanni Maria?
his brother, Filippo Maria
9
Who was the last of the Visconti dukes?
Filippo Maria
9
When Filippo Maria died in 1447 without any provision for the succession, the people of Milan hired what mercenary captain to defend Milan?
Franceso Sforza
9
In 1450 Francesco Sforza laid siege against Milan with what state's assistance?
Florence (ruler: Cosimo de Medici)
9
What treaty in 1454 ended the conflict between Florence- Milan and Venice-Naples?
Peace of Lodi
9
From what nation did Sforza secured control of Genoa?
France
Who was Sforza's successor, who was latered murdered in church(1476) because of his absolute rule?
Galeazzo Maria
Who was the famous brother of Gian Galeazzo (Galeazzo Maria's son)?
Ludovico the Moor
Why was Ludovico the Moor important?
established one of the most brilliant courts, encouraged the University of Pavia and helped Milan prosper by irrigation works
What broke up the old alliance of Milan, Naples, and Florence?
the marriage of Ludovico to a pricess of the ruling house of Naples, who became dissatisfied with her false position of duchess and begged her family for help
Ludovico dealth with and encouraged what king, that brought a most ominous fate to Italy?
the French king, Charles VIII
(laid claim to the throne of Naples on the basis of the rule of the house of Anjou)
When were the islands of Venice settled by refugees from the mainland fleeing from Hunnish and German invaders?
15th century A.D.
Venice was governed by tribunes, overseen by a duke or _____.
doge
The merchant oligarchy of Venice later exercised its power through what two councils?
Great Council, Small Council
What was the Great Council?
seat of sovereignty, in which surpreme power resided and from which the other government bodies were formed
By the 14th cenutry what government body was the center of public administration?
the Senate
The victory of the aristocracy was sealed by the "closing" of the _____ ______ in 1297.
Great Council
(restricted eligibility to the members of about 200 of great merchant families)
What goverment body was formed due to the serious conspiracy against the government in 1310?
Council of Ten
What did the Council of Ten do to Venice?
gave the government outlines such as watching over the affairs of the state and ferreting out and punishing any and all conspiracies
What was the most famous conspiracy that happened in 1355?
conspiracy of the doge Marino Faliero, it failed and he was executed
What did Venice do in order to recoup from their lost of relations between them and the emperor of the East?
diverted the Fourth Crusade (1204)and successfully attacked Constantinople
10
In 1294 what dangerous rival for the eastern trade did Venice declare war against?
Genoa
10
By what year did Genoa and Venice declare peace?
1381
10
Who was the most famous Venetian merchants who lived in the Mongol Empire as an official of the Great Khan from 1275 to 1292?
Marco Polo
10
In what century was Venice at the height of its glory?
15th century
10
What was the gold coin of Venice called, minted since 1284?
ducat
10
What reasons were for the long decline of Venice?
1.)advance of Ottoman Turks into eastern Europe
2.)Portuegese took over eastern trade in spices which had belonged to Venice
3.)Entrance of the French, Dutch and English into eastern trade
4.)outbreak of the plague
5.)exhaustion of supply of timber for shipbuilding
10
What were some of the motives for Venice to aquire control over territory on Italian mainland?
1.)secure routes of trade and Venetian food supply
2.)recoup losses in the East
10
Venice allied with Florence against Milan, but because of the coming of who did Florence abandon Venice and helped Milan?
Francesco Sforza
10
Venice remained independent until who conquered the state at the end of the 18th century?
Napoleon
10.II.iii.
What professor has shown that the conscious expression of Venetian republicanism came largely in the 16th century?
Professor William J. Bouwsma
10.II.iv.
Until what event and year did Florence struggle against the attempts of emperor to take over the city?
death of the last great medieval emperor, Frederick II (1250)
10
What was the Florentin coin that started to flourish in 1252?
florin
11
Florence became a ________ city, which means that it was on the side of the papacy in its struggle against the empire.
Guelf
11.I.ii.
In what year did the merchants and bankers take over the government in Florence?
1282-1283
11
After the merchants and bankers took over, what was the new ruling class called?
the "popolo", or people
11.I.iii.
The "popolo" was divided into ____ greater guilds and _____ lesser guilds.
7,14
11.I.iii
The members of the greater guilds were commonly known as the ______ _____, or fat people.
"popolo graso"
The members of the lesser guilds were called "popolo minuto" or _____ ______.
little people
What kinds of classes were among the greater guilds?
wool manufacturers, wool finishers, silk merchants, and bankers
What body of government did the greater guilds create?
executive body of priors (6)
What was the term of office for the executive body of prior?
two months (chosen by lot)
Florence, though bearing the name of the republic, can with more justification be called a(n) __________.
oligarchy
There was also a large class with no political power, who belonged to this class?
workers (suffered more in economic depression)
11.I.iii.
What act of 1293 penalized the members of the former ruling class of magnates?
Ordinances of Justice
(magnate=powerful or influential person)
11.I.iv.
What position was established as the 7th prior and chief of the priors, with the function of executing sentences pronounced in court against the nobles?
"gonfaloniere" (standard-bearer)
11.I.iv.
What was the one way to attack political enemies?
have them officially declared magnates
11.I.iv.
What two factions did the Guelf split into?
Black and White
11.I.v.
With the help of Pope Boniface VIII and what French prince did the Blacks win the Whites in 1301?
Charles of Valois
11.I.v
What famous person belonged to the White faction that was exiled after the Blacks won?
Dante
11.II.i.
In what year did Florence reach a peak of prosperity?
1338
11.II.ii.
According to what chronicler, was the Florentine populaton 90,000, making it one of the largest cities in Europe?
Giovanni Villani
11.II.ii.
Based on what commodity was the Florentine wealth immense?
woolen cloth
11.II.ii.
Because of what two banker families' loan to the king of the England, Edward II, did Florence's financial structure become weakened?
Bardi and Peruzzi
11.II.ii.
What duke of Athens was called in by Florence to take temporary charges of the city, but was driven out in 1343 because of his tyranny?
Walter of Brienne, member of the ruling family of Naples
11.II.ii.
How many years were the lesser guilds of Florence able to exercise dominant power in the city?
35
11.II.iii.
What war from 1375 to 1378 was an event in which Florence and the Pope were actually at war?
War of the Eight Saints
11.II.iii.
In the 1340s, what two catastrophic events helped to shatter the well-being of the city?
1.)Bardi and Peruzzi families went bankrupt
2.)the Black Death plague
In what year did the Revolt of the Ciompi take place, in where the poor workers rose up and were able for a few years to take over the government?
1378 (ended in 1382)
11.II.iv.
Under what government did Florence face the threat of Gian Galeazzo Visconti from Milan?
mercantile oligarchy
During what century did Florence claim to be defending freedom in the expulsion of tyrants from their city?
14th century
Why did Florence break its alliance with Venice against Milan during 1425?
Venetian expansion into Milan territory
(defending freedom)
12.I.ii.
In what century did "civic humanism" develop in Florence?
15th century (first half)
12.I.iii.
What ideal did humanistic scholars of Florence adopt?
active civic life in the service of the state
The beginnings of the city of Florence was traced to what event during the last years of the Roman Republic?
settlement by Sulla's soldiers
During what year did Cosimo de' Medici came to power in Florence?
1434
From 1434 to his death in _____, Cosimo was the effective ruler of Florence?
1464
What did Cosimo do in order to leave the appearance of Florentine republican freeedom?
took no title (nor did he change the established organs of government)
12.I.iv.
What did he do to his enemies?
destroyed their power and confiscated their possessions
12.I.iv.
In what location did Cosimo establish the first public library in Europe?
monastery of San Marco
Who were the most famous people that Cosimo patronized?
Brunelleschi, Donatello and Fra Angelico(painter)
What is the inscription on Cosimo de' Medici's grave?
"Pater Patriae," the Father of the Fatherland
12.II.i.
Who was the successor of Cosimo de' Medici?
Piero de' Medici
12.II.ii.
Who brought the Medici family bank to the height of its prosperity?
Piero
(died after 5 yrs of rule)
Who was Piero de' Medici's successor?
Lorenzo de' Medici (20yrs old)
Who was later called the Magnificent?
Lorenzo
12.II.iii.
Lorenzo was poet, but less successful as a ___________.
businessman
What family developed the conspiracy and assassination plan to kill both Lorenzo and his brother Guiliano?
Pazzi (encouraged by Pope Sixtus IV)
12.II.iv.
On April 26, 1478 the plotters succeeded in murdering ___________, but failed to kill __________.
Guiliano, Lorenzo
During the December of 1479, what did Lorenzo do in order to take back the control of Florence from the Pope?
negotiated with the Neapolitan king, Ferrante
(w/out prior consultation with Florenting goverment)
12.II.v.
Whose death brought peace to Italy?
sultan, Mohammed II
What two bodies of government did Lorenzo create and controlled in 1480 and 1490?
Council of Seventy, Committee of Seventeen
12.II.vii.
What did Lorenzo do in order to create disconcent in Florence?
used public money for private purposes
13.I.i.
After whose death in 1492 was Italy forced to submit to foreign domination?
Lorenzo de Medici
12.II.vi.
Who was the only king in Italy?
king of Naples
13.I.iii.
What kingdom was a vassal state of the papacy?
kingdom of Naples
Who was rewarded king of Naples and Sicily in result of his freeing the pope from the German imperial family of Hohenstaufen?
Charles of Anjou, brother of King Louis IX of France
What climactic event in 1282 delivered Sicily to Aragonese rule?
Sicilian Vespers
13.II.i.
Who unified Sicily and the Naples under his rule in 1442?
Alfonso of Aragon, aka Alfonso the Magnanimous
At his death, Alfonso divded Naples and Sicily. He left Sicily and Sardinia to _________ and left Naples with ____________.
John (brother), Ferdinand or Ferrante (illegitimate son)
13.II.ii.
Which graddaughter of Ferrante's married the young duke of Milan and helped to precipitate the chain the events that brought the French into Italy in 1494?
Isabella
13.II.ii.
Who did Lorenzo de'Medici marry on June 6, 1469?
Clarice Orsini
13btm.I.i.
Who was Lorenzo's mother?
Lucrezia de'Medici
14.I.ii.
Who is Lorenzo's brother, that became his major support?
Guiliano de'Medici
14.I.ii.
What were Lorenzo's and Guiliano's striking characteristics?
Lorenzo-ugly, big nose, intellectual, cultural
Guiliano-handsome, sportsman, businessman
14.I.ii.
What famous writer and lawyer was born on May 3, 1469?
Niccolo Machiavelli (republican)
14.I.iii.
Who was Lorenzo's grandfather?
Cosimo de'Medici
14.I.iii.
Nearly half the population of Florence was under the age of ____.
20
14.I.iv.
Florentines were not permitted to enter public life and government until they were at least _____.
30
14.I.iv.
Who was the wealthiest man in Europe at his death?
Cosimo de'Medici
Who was the heir of Cosimo de'Medici?
Piero
14.II.i.
At what age did Lorenzo have to represent his father at Ippolita Sforza's marriage, because of his father's ill-health?
15
14.II.i.
At 16 years old, Lorenzo took his father's place on a ______, an emergency council and on the influential ______, the Council of One Hundred.
"Balia," and "Cento"
14.II.i.
Effective political power in Florence laid in the ________, a body of nine men, re-elected every two months.
"Signoria"
14.II.ii.
Of the 10,000 families who lived in Florence, only about ________ mattered politically , and of these only _____ families had real political influence.
3,000
100
What percent of the city's wealth did the 100 families control?
25%
The best of Lorenzo's English biographers, who said that that Lorenzo was not a prince, but a "corporate" decision maker?
Judith Hook
14.II.iv.
What steps did Lorenzo take to keep the power that the Medici had?
1.) manipulate the selection of the "Signoria"
2.)gain the support of foreign princes
3.)gain support of Florentine citizens
15.I.i-ii.
Who was the patron saint of Florence?
San Giovanni (St. John the Baptist)
15.I.iii.
Who were the "fanciulli"?
wealth adolescent males b/t the ages of 13 and 24, formed brigades
15.II.i.
The _______ _______ _______ was an elaborate joust with the finest of horses, costumes and armour.
"Stanze della Giostra"
What was Giuliano de' Medici's brigade called?
Company of the Magi
Why were the Pazzi angry at the Medici?
the Pazzi lent the pope money when the Medici bank refused; Lorenzo changed the laws of inheritance to the disadvantage of the wife of Giovanni de' Pazzi, thus preventing a huge fortune from passing into their control
15.II.ii.
Why was the third attempt of assassination of the Medici brothers almost abandoned?
Because Giuliano did not attend Mass
15.II.iii.
How many times was Giuliano de Medici stabbed?
19
Who was one of Giuliano's assasin, that was later dragged naked from his hiding place and hung from a window of the Palace of the "Signoria"?
Francesco de' Pazzi
16.I.ii.
How did Lorenzo react to the assassinationi of his brother?
constitutional reforms of April 1480, developed the Council of Seventy
What was the courtesy title that was given to Lorenzo, that was usually given to a large number of distinguuised men, not used in their lifetime?
"Il Magnifico"
16.I.iii.
Who was Lorenzo's intelligent second son, who grew up to become Pope Leo X?
Giovanni de' Medici
16.II.i.
Who was Giuliano's mistress?
Fioretta
16.II.ii.
Who was Giuliano's illegitimate son who later became pope and took the title of Clement VIII?
Giulio de' Medici?
16.II.ii.