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157 Cards in this Set

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Who posted the Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Castle Church?
Martin Luther in 1517
The Church is in Wittenburg, Germany.

Section 4
Charles, the archduke of Austria, is also known as?
Roman Emperor Charles V
He was the most powerful ruler in europe.

Section 4
Ferdinand Magellan was from where?
Portugal
He set sail from Sevilla, Spain with five ships heading to South America.
Who overthrew the Aztec Empire in 1521?
Hernando Cortes
He was a Spanish explorer and conquistador.
When did Charles V Defeat Francis I?
1525
Battle of Pavia in Italy
What were the Jews accused of in 1510 in Brandenburg, Germany?
Stealing and stabbing the Host
It is a legend and the answer is something found in a church.
What made the people belive their souls were being saved but was actually a scam.
Indulgences
They would buy these from the priests in order to not perform the required holy works.
What was Frederick the Wise of Saxony's "hobby"?
To collect holy relics
They help diminish time in purgatory.
Dutch Scholar Desiderius Erasmus and English Lawyer Thomas More reprisented what?
Christian Humanists
They placed their primary emphasis on Christian piety.
Who became chancellor to King Henry VIII?
Thomas More
He was a Lawyer that reprisented the Christian Humanists.
He used movable type of blocks to print papal documents and the first printed version of the Bible.
Who was he?
Johannes Gutenberg
In 1454 at Mainz, Germany.(Last paragraph of page 57)
The Praise of Folly was written by which Humanist?
Desiderius Erasmasus
Most influential work by him; written in 1511 at the house of the English humanist Sir Thomas More.
Page 58, section ____ and Northern Humanism
Italian Humanist also called?
Civic Humanist
spoke to and for the upper class elements in their city states. "centered on the liberality or parsimony of princes, on the moral worth of riches, and on the question of how to define true nobility"
page 58, section ____ and Northern Humanism
Northern Humanist were against's preaching in that they spoke out against a broad range of political, social, economic, and religious evils. True or False?
True
Italian Humanist were trying to defend, not condemm.
page 58, section ____ and Northern Humanism
The most significant figure in English humanist ?; he wrote ___ which is the first description of an ideal state since Plato's republic.
Sir Thomas More, Utopia.
He criticized his age by using as his spokesman a fictitious sailor who contrasts the ideal life he has seen in ___(second blank)(The land of Nowhere).
Page 58, 2nd column.
Where did the magnetic needle and compass come from, and when?
Arabs, 12th Century
taken to Europe
Why did explorers want to find a direct route to India?
They wanted to obtain spices such as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, etc.
Intro-p.g 62
Who was Columbus referred to for a patron for his vogage?
Ferdinand V &
(The Spanish, pg 62)
Aragon, Castille
Ferdinand Magellan left Spain and crossed ________.
Cape horn, and Zebu
(Spanish, pg 63) tip of South America
Vasco de Gama explored?
Cape of Good Hope, and Lisbon
coast of Africa (The Portugese, p.62)
When Hernando Cortez went to Mexico, their population was reduced from 25 million to ___.
2 million
pg. 63, Spanish
Francisco Pizzaro conquered ____________.
The Incan Empire of Peru
p.63, the Spanish
country in South America
Petrarch Influences
Cicero & Agustine
Pg. 18 2nd column. par. 3

One of the names was in the movie Chicago where Velma Kelly killed her husband and her sister.
Which language did Humanist focus in redescovering?
Latin
Pg. 18 2nd column. par. 2

Medical words.
What kind of reasoning does this phrase use?
" All humans are animals. Socrates is human. Therefore, Socrates is an animal"
Syllogism
Pg. 19 2nd column. par 3

Does not use facts.
What did Cicero argue was the greatest profession?
Orator
Pg. 19 1st column. par. 4

Has eloquence.
The ability to persuade others by using the arts of language.
Eloquence
Pg. 19 1st column. par. 5

something a great speaker should have.
Known for his work in discovering and dissembling classical literature.
Petrarch
Pg. 18 1st column. par. 2

Who was a prominent civil humanist?
Leonardo Bruni &/or Leon Battista Alberti
Pg. 20 2nd column par.3

Painter in 15th century
Provided a program of study in eloquence and composition
"The Eloquence of the Latin Language"
pg. 20 1st column par. 3

Part of the answer is in the question.
Lorenzo Valla
who was the greatest collector of Greek works?
Giovanni Aurispa
Pg. 21 1st column par. 2
What was the purpose of the Council of Constance?
Central place for recovering ancient text.
Pg. 20 2nd column. par. 6

something that Rema can't spell.
Valla's work "On Pleasure" features three speakers which are?
A stoic
an Epicurean
and a Christian
Pg. 21 2nd column. par. 5

S.E.C.
Which religion did Salutati Followed?
Christianity
don't think to hard on it.
what's the obvious answer?
What influenced the writing of history in Christian Europe?
The Bible and Augustine's "City of God"
pg.22 2nd column. par. 2

Name of a movie with Nicolas Cage and Meg Ryan.
Who was Livy?
Ancient Roman Historian
Pg. 22 2nd column. par 4

Rome
Found a Relationship between Roman freedom and Roman Literature
Leonardo Bruni
Pg. 23 1st column. par 2

What was Henry VIII recognized for by the Catholic Church?
Defender of the Faith.
It's not what you expect.
Pg. 51
The year Henry decided he would divorce CAtherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn.
1527
What happened in the year?
pg. 51
Why could Henry not divorce Cathorine easily?
Catherine's brother, Charles V, sent his armies to Rome and Pope Clement VII didn't want to have Charles destroy him.
Charles.
pg. 51
Francois Rabelais(1494-1553, a French humanist is best remembered for?
Gargantua and Pantagruel
this folklore relates the adventures of Garantua and his son Pantagruel, genial giants of tremendous stature and appetite. pg 58 and 59.
coarse humor or bold caricature-burlesque humor, what term means that?
Rabelaisian
One of the French Humanist.
page 59
He blended zeal for relegious reform and German nationalist feelings, he wanted to unite Germany under the emperor, led a tumultuous life as a wandering Greek scholar and satirist.
Ulrich von Hutten
He supported Luther and protestant revolt against the papacy
What is the Tripartite Constitution of Milan?
Each of the three main classes had its own political organization.
Page 7, Italian City-States.
TRI = 3
In what year did Archbishop Ottone Visconti become lord of Milan?
1277
Page 8, 1st paragraph.
the number is: uno dos siete siete
Who was the family who dominated the Milan during the much of the thirteenth century?
Della Torre
Page 8, 1st paragraph.
dilitory (possible pronounciation)
In what year did the Visconti brothers become joint rulers?
1354
Page 8, 3rd paragraph
6+7= first two numbers, and half of 100 plus 4 equals last two numbers
In what year did Aquinas die,of what,and how old was he?
Year 1274, died of fever, and was barely 50 yrs old.
1st p. pg. 31
13th century, wouldnt expect to die from it today.
What is Aquinas theory of knowledge?
A sober statement of how men know the world.
3rd p. pg. 31
not what you would think from this Christian Saint.
Aquinas wanted to understand the intelligibility of the individual human soul.Therefore his focus was on man. what was Augustines focus on?
The world
pg 32
Who was Aquinas?
A Medieval Philosopher
1st p. pg. 31
Saint Thomas Aquinas
since what century did Theology develope?
the 2nd and 3rd century
pg. 32
Who was the heir of Henry VIII?
Edward VI.
Edward the ?
Pg. 52
What religion was Edward VI rasied in?
Protestant.
Not Catholic.
Pg. 52
Why did Henry not complain about the religious ordeal with Edward.
He feared England would revert back to Roman (Catholic) power.
Fear of...
Pg. 52
What was abolished under Edward's uncle, Sir Wailliam Paget, that was essentially the only religious act by Henry VIII?
Act of Six Articles.
How many?
Pg. 53
What was the Act of Six Articles?
Six conservative views by Henry VIII.
...views by...
Pg. 52
Who succeeded Edward?
Mary I.
...had a little lamb.
Pg. 53.
What was she so famous for?
Bringing Catholicism back to England.
Bringing ... back to England.
Pg. 53
Who succeeded Mary I?
Elizabeth I
... didn't have a little lamb.
Pg. 53
What made Elizabeth I so important?
She fought a great war with Sctoland and Catholicism came back to a lot of Europe.
They fought and lost.
Pg. 54
What happened after the defeat?
A victory.
Just guess, will ya?
Pg. 54
Did Mary win in the end (1568)?
No.
It's not yes.
Pg. 55
What is another word for dogmatism?
Conformity
pg. 32 1st column
What was the name of the god they thought was evil?
Jehovah
pg. 32 second column
What was the name of the God that they said was the good one and that went thru persecution and crucifixion?
Jesus Christ
pg. 32. second column
Why was the clash between reason and faith inevitable?
Because of intellectual,social,economic,and cultural changes for the 12th and 13th century.
pg. 32. second column
In what century was Aquinas certainly the New Aristotle?
In the 13th century
pg. 32 second column last paragraph
When was Charles V born?
February 24, 1500.
10 days after Valentine's Day.
Pg. 55
When did Charles V's father die?
When Charles was 6.
Seis.
Pg. 55
Who thought Charles that "authorities may clash," according to one historian.
Those who took care of him when his father died, his aunt Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands, and his chamberlain, Sieur de Chievres.
Caretakers.
Pg. 55
What activities did he like?
Which did he despise?
hunting, music, singing, art, and architecture,
Latin, Greek, or any other ancient language.
It's a list, just for information.
Pg. 55
The age Charles became ruler of the Netherlands.
15
The age Charles ......
Pg. 55
Year Charles became Holy Roman Emperor.
1519
Year Charles .......
Pg. 55
Year Charles V summoned Martin Luther to later declare him beyond rehabilitation.
1521
Year Charles summoned ......... to ..........
Pg. 56
War with France. (There are details of the war on page 56)
1521-29
War with....
Pg. 56
Year Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Bologna.
1530
Year Charles V was ...........
Pg. 56
Year Paul III convened the Council of Trent from within to make it more tolerant of other practices. This did not have a large impact.
1545
Year Paul III ............... to make it more ........ . This did not have a ..... impact.
Pg. 57
Year Charles brought England into the Spanish orbit by marrying Philip II to the Catholic English queen. It would all be for nothing when Mary died in 1558 and Phillip could not be recognized as an idependent monarch leading to no children.
1554
Year Charles brought .... into the .... orbit by marrying ..... to the .... English .... .
Pg. 57
Charles left the bulk of his possessions to Philip II and retired to a monastary.
1555
Charles left ...... possessions to ........ and .......... .
Pg. 57
Charles V died.
January of 1556
Charles . ..... .
Pg. 57
What year was both the year of Lorenzo Medici's marriage and the death of his father Piero?
1469
Page 14
one-four-six-something
What is Niccolo Machiavelli's noted book?
_The Prince_
Page 14
People thought that he was supporting princely government when he was actually a fervent republican who did not want princes in the Republic of Florence
What was the Signoria?
A body of nine men, relected every two months, which controled Florence.
Page 14
Deals with governent of Florence.
How were the Medici Brothers different from princes?
Princes could command and expect to be obeyed by subjects. The Medici brothers could only adbise, cajole, persuade, and hope to be followed.
Page 14
Florence does not have any Princes
The Florentine Republic was no democracy but an oligarchy of ___________.
rich merchants
Page 14
money
What were some of the sources of Medici Power? (name at least 1)
Manipulation in the selection of the Signoria,
Backing of foreign princes,
looking after clients' intrests, posting coat of arms
Page 15
.... there are four that I found...
Who ruled Milan after Galeazzo died in 1378?
Gian Galeazzo
Page 8, 3rd paragraph.
His last name is Galeazzo
How did Gian Galeazzo become the ruler of the whole Milanese state?
He tricked his uncle, Bernarb, and put him in jail where he died.
Page 8, 4th paragraph.
It was a plot.
Who were the two brother who ruled Milan?
Galeazzo and Bernarb
Page 8, 3rd paragraph.
Their names begin with G and B
Who purchased the Holy Roman Emperor the title of Duke of Milan?
Gian Galeazzo
Page 8, 5th paragraph.
It was the same guy who ruled Milan after Galeazzo died.
Who received the title of duke after Gian Galeazzo?
Giovanni Maria
Page 9, 2nd paragraph.
His name has a Maria in it.
Last notable french skeptic developed a new literary form an gave what name?
the Essay
His essay was entitled "Of Experience".
page 59, 1st column.
The most famous work by by Miguel de Servante is?
Don Quixote de la Mancha
there was a movie about it where an old man is nostalgic for chivalric good days, he is accompanied by Sancho Panza.
page 59 2nd column.
This author, at the reign of Queen Elizabeth produced thirty seven plays-comedies, histories, tragedies, and romances. Who is he?
William Shakespeare
Peare
page 60, 1st column.
Flemish painter was famous for "the full flowering of the spirit of the late late MIddle Ages"
Jan van Eyck
has a marsian name!
page 60, end of 1st column.
This German painter was influenced deeply by Italian art. Who is he?
Albrecht Durer
His contemporary was Jams Holbein the Younger.
page 60
His work doesn't live up to the humanistic ideal of history as literature
Flavio Biondo
pg. 23 1st column par. 3
Who thought learning "must be voluntary, that ir must be interspersed with holidays and games"?
Quintilian
pg. 23 2nd column par.2

think of the name that is given to a group of 5 people that play music.
Put into Practice Quintlian's ideas.
Vittorino da Feltre &/or Guarino da Verona
pg. 23 2nd column par.3
A detail portrait of the ideal product of a himanistic education can be found in
Il Cortegiano (The Courtier)
pg. 24 1st column par. 1
il Cortegiano (The courtier) was written by
Baldassare castiglione
pg. 24 1st column par. 1

what position does the pope holds in the Renaissance?
Rulers of the church and head of an italian city-state
pg. 24 1st column par. 3
became the head of a conspiracy to take over the city for the "people"
Cola di Rienzo
pg. 24 2st column par. 6

Coca-Cola
first humanist pope and the real founder of the Vatican Library
Nicolas V
pg. 25 1st column par. 3
wrote in favor of the council of basil but then he changed sides and supported the pope
Arneas Sylvius
pg. 25 1st column par. 4

last name sounds like Sylvia
Spanish Cardinal who became pope and had 2 children Lucrezia and Caesar; became synonimous with the moral degradation.
Rodrigo Borgia &/or Alexander IV
pg. 25 1st column par. 4
Renaissance Platonism was considered as a school or even a coherent movement.
True or False?
False
it was not a program of education or constitute normal studies nor did it ever become a program of study or curriculum.
pg. 33 1st paragraph
the first to undertake translating and transmitting Plato to the rest of Europe was Cardinal Bessarion.
True or False?
True
Pg. 33 2nd column
who was Marsilio Ficino?
the most important of the Renaissance Neoplatonists
pg 33 last paragraph
Ficino was the founder of what?
of the Academy in Firenze under the auspices of Cosimo de'Medici
pg. 33
Pico Della Mirandola was both a Neoplatonist and a humanist.
True or False
True
pg. 34
What led to the reformation?
religious questioning
p.64, manuscript tradition
The advent of printing was brought by
the desire to communicate and disseminate
p.64, manuscript tradition
What was the spelling punctuation, abbreviation, and Gothic and Roman letter forms were drawn from the
medieval manuscript tradition
p. 64
Why did the printers diminish its attachment to the manuscript tradition?
competition forced it to adopt new printing methods
p.64
Who made the printing press?
Guttenberg
p.64, 2nd paragraph
Who succeeded Giovanni Maria?
Fillipo Maria
Page 9, 1st paragraph.
His name is similar to Philip, but a bit different.
Who assisted Francesco Sforza in laying siege to Milan in 1450?
Florence's ruler Cosimo de' Medici
Page 9, 2nd paragraph.
They used to be their enemy.
What was the Peace of Lodi of 1454?
It ended the conflict between the city-states.
Page 9, 3rd paragraph.
It caused peace.
How was Galeazzo Maria killed, the son and successor of Sforza until 1476?
He was murdered in church
Page 9, 4th paragraph.
It was a conspiracy against him.
Who was the duke of Milan in name, but not in power?
Gian Galeazzo
Page 9, 4th paragraph.
His name is similar to that of the son of Galeazzo
When did the assembly of the people become formally abolished?
In the fifteenth century.
Page 9, 8th paragrah.
The merchant oligarchy of Venice exercised its power through a _____________ ___________ and a _______________ _____________.
Great Council, Small council
Page 9, 8th paragraph.
There is a big one and a tiny one.
In 1310, in Venice, what act led to a serious conspircay against the government?
The "closing" of the Great Council in 1297.
Page 9, 9th paragraph.
Something was closed.
What was the purpose of the Council of Ten?
To guard against further attempts of conspiracy against the government.
Page 9, 9th paragraph.
It was created because of the conspiracy against the government.
What was the ducat?
Venice's gold coin.
Page 10, 2nd paragraph.
A form of money.
In what year did the Turks took Constantinople from Venice?
1453.
Page 10, 3rd paragraph.
some time in the 1450's
How was Venice's position decline towards the end of the sixteenth century?
Continued war with the Turks, outbreak of the plague, and exhaustion of the supply of timber for shipbuilding.
Page 10, 3rd paragraph.
What were some of the essential defining features of the Renaissance?
“The rediscovery of man and the world, a renewed sense of joy in life, realism replacing idealism, and experimentation with the pursuit of knowledge displacing traditionalism and obscurantism”
Page 4
Its common sense really. Just think of some of the things that made the Renaissance different from the Middle Ages. Answer is straight from text and contain many a big word.
Where were the first manifestations of the Renaissance?
Florence
Page 5
An Italian city state starting with “F”
Why was Venice the most stable of the Italian city states?
It’s constitution, the impenetrable position of the island, and the uniform sea oriented interests of its people.
Page 5
There are more than one answer, just think of one.
In what year did Copernicus publish his book of astronomy and Vesalius in anatomy?
1543
The scientific revolution took place during what century?
16th, 17th, 18th
In 1687 Newton publish this book of astronomy and physic.
Principia
Who said "the heart has its reason, which reason does not know"
Blaise Pascal 1623-62
In Advancement of Learning, Francis Bacon describe two causes in nature, what are they and which time period use them?
1: Medieval philosopher focus on intention, the "final cause"
2: Modern scientist focus on consequences, "physical cause"
How did some of the scientist of the 16th century explain nature?
They use mathematical, in term of quantities instead of qualities
What are fixed stars?
Star beyond the planets that instead of having annual movement like the known planets, only circle the earth daily
When did Copernicus live?
1473-1543
Why were the concept of excentic and epicycle use?
planet distance from earth, speed, retrograde (movement opposite of normal one)
In a epicycle, what is the larger circle call?
The Deferent
From 1454-1504 lived an Italian astronomer who rejected the Ptolenaic system
Domenico Maria Novara
What is the Platomic Pythagoren thought?
thought the universe as basically mathematical, made up of a simple and harmonious system
After moving back to Poland as a preiest, Copernicus continue to work with the revolution of the earth, he publish this book in 1543 on the planetary system
" Six books Concerning the Revolutionof Heavenly Sphere" aka De revolutionibus
Dane Tycho Brache (1546-1601) rejected heliocentic system for what reason?
The earth is too heavy and contradict the bible, his explanation become that the planet revolve around the sun the sun revolve around the earth
After his death in 1601, Tycho turned his study to this man who worked with him at the Court of Emperor Rudolf II in Prague
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
With his passion for the sun, Kepler created this to explain the harmonious movement of the planet
3 laws of planetary motion
What is Kepler's 3 laws?
1: planet revolution around the sun is ellipses
2: radius vector draws from the sun to the planet describes equal areas in periods of time
3: the square of the periodic times of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distance from the sun
In what year did Galileo introgated by the Holy Office for this advocacy of Copernicus's system
1633
Who was the first to make an accuarte drawing of human embryo
Leonardo
Galen (c.129-c.200) focused on what mostly?
Finding the purpose of body part authority in the field of anatomy physiology and medicine
During the middle ages in Europe, what was the material use to make manuscript book?
Parchment or Vellum
During what century did paper making technique using linen rag and hemp spread from Arabs to Spain?
13-14th century
Why did the development of paper and printing press develope so slowly before the mid 15 century?
The rise in literacy throughout Europe during the Renaissance
Where did the technology of printing spread?
from Mainz to strasburg, up and down Rhine Valley, to Swiss city Basel and Antwerp, down to Basin to Italy Venice, where the development of modern type font, to paris Lyon in 1470, Spain in Scadinavia in 1500
What are the 6 effect of European Culture by the printing press?
1: some text effect on scholarship
2: effect for science development of idea
3: education, learn more with book, need no memorizing
4: Art spread greatly
5: National and stable/sharp language
6. Laws