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92 Cards in this Set

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A region extending south and east from central Mexico to include parts of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua. In pre-Colombian times it was inhabited by diverse civilizations, including the Mayan and the Olmec.
arrived in the New World in 1492, gave the Indians their name
Christopher Colombus
Italian navigator and explorer of the South American coast. America was named in his honor.
Amerigo Vespucci
Portuguese explorer and colonial administrator. The first European to sail to India (1497-1498), he opened the rich lands of the East to Portuguese trade and colonization.
Vasco de Gama
Conquerors, specifically 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America or Peru. Collected and exported as much of the area’s wealth as they could, forced Catholicism
Spanish explorer and conqueror of the Inca Empire of Peru (1531-1533). He founded the city of Lima in 1535.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
ninth leader of the Aztecs, famous for his confrontation with Hernán Cortés, in which he was held prisoner by Cortés until death
in the US, a land grant system started in 1503 which gave certain Spaniards an estate or tract of land in America as well as the Native American inhabitants of that land
Italian-born explorer who commanded the English expedition that discovered the North American mainland (1497).
John Cabot
A Dutch colony in North America along the Hudson and lower Delaware rivers. The first settlement was made at Fort Orange (now Albany, New York) in 1624. One of the two colonies was annexed by the English and renamed New York in 1664.
New Netherlands/New Amsterdam
the movement resulting from Martin Luther’s protests against the extravagance of the Catholic church, his posting of the 95 Theses, his further writings, and conversion of others to Lutheranism and its branches
Protestant Reformation
wrote the 95 Theses in protest to the extravagance of the Catholic church, declared an outlaw and heretic
Martin Luther’s belief that only by the divine initiative of grace as received through God's gift of faith are people made right with God.
Sola Fide/Faith Alone
French-born Swiss Protestant theologian who broke with the Roman Catholic Church (1533) and set forth the tenets of his theology, known today as Presbyterianism, in Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536).
John Calvin
The doctrine that God has foreordained all things, especially that God has elected certain souls to eternal salvation.
The episcopal and liturgical national church of England, which has its seat in Canterbury.
Church of England
A member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the Church of England. Protested corruption in the Church of England.
the Spanish navy, made it difficult for countries other than Spain to send their own expeditions to the New World. Defeated by the English 1588.
The Spanish Armada
English naval hero and explorer who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world (1577-1580) and was vice admiral of the fleet that destroyed the Spanish Armada (1588).
Francis Drake
sponsored a settlement on Roanoke Island, which disappeared and was later known as the Lost Colony
Sir Walter Raleigh
appalled at English corruption in the Church, this group left England in the 16th century and, trying to landing VA, ended up in Mass.
gave life-saving assistance to the Pilgrims in Plymouth, served as the English interpreter and taught them how best to plant in their new home
agreement signed by the Pilgrims on the Mayflower which established a “body politic” and a basic legal system for the colony at Plymouth. (Created legal authority & assembly, asserted that the government’s power derives from the consent of the governed and not from God.)
Mayflower Compact
in Mass., established by the Pilgrims
Plymouth Colony
led the Massachusetts Bay colony under Puritan ideals (believed they had a covenant with God, worked to serve a communal ideal, etc.)
John Winthrop
that economic power was rooted in a favorable balance of trade (exporting more than you import) and the control of specie (hard currency such as coins)
the idea that a nation’s true wealth lies in how much gold or silver bullion it possesses
exporting more than you import, essential to mercantilism
Balance of trade
ruled England as a republic, complete with a constitution. After his death, English again began to emigrate to the New World to escape persecution at home and brought with them the republican ideas of ______'s England
Oliver Cromwell
required the colonists to buy goods only from England, to sell certain of its products only to England, and to import any non-English goods via English ports and pay a duty on those imports. Also prohibited the colonies from manufacturing a number of goods that England already produced. Basically sought to establish a wide-ranging English control over colonial commerce
Navigation Acts
a group of investors who bought the right to establish New World plantations from the king
Joint-stock company
colony owned by one person, who usually received the land as a gift from the king. (Connecticut, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Carolina)
Proprietary colony
a colony owned by a king (many proprietary colonies became this type of colony eventually) who could then exert greater control over their governments
Royal colony
a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the country
Self-governing colony
one who, in return for free passage to another country, promises seven years labor, after which he receives his freedom, and often a small piece of property. However, many of these people did not survive the hard conditions of the 7 years work.
Indentured servant
a direct predecessor to the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and then the state of Massachusetts, this company was established under a charter issued to this company.
Massachusetts Bay Company
commonly practiced in New England, when residents of the town or district gather once a year in a legislative body, voting on operating budgets, laws, and other matters for the community’s operation over the following twelve months
Town meeting
The idea or concept of grouping multiple campaign contributions together in one large "care-package" of sorts. In America, a single person or corporate entity can contribute a maximum of $10,000US to a politician for purpose of campaign contributions.
originating 1636, named _______ College in 1638 after John Harvard, who donated a generous library to the college. Graduated its first students in 1642
Harvard College
a prominent proponent of antinomianism, the belief that faith and God’s grace (as opposed to good deeds and morality) suffice to earn one a place among the elect. This went against Puritanism and she was banished
Anne Hutchinson
teacher in the Salem Bay settlement, taught that church and state should be separate, was banished by the Puritans and moved to Rhode Island, where he founded a new colony that allowed religious freedom & did not require voters to be church members
Roger Williams
colony founded by Roger Williams that allowed religious freedom & did not require voters to be church members.
Rhode Island
The system of government and religious beliefs of a Protestant denomination in which each member church is self-governing.
during the summer of 1692, more than 130 “witches” were jailed or executed in Salem
Salem Witch Trials
name of the joint-stock company which funded Jamestown, gave Virginia its name
Virginia Company
settled in 1606 by the English, funded by a joint-stock company, only survived because of the harsh martial law of John Smith
independently wealthy men who did not have to work to make a living, but who were without a title (baron, lord, etc).
daughter of the chief of Powhatan Confederacy, married planter John Rolfe, helped ease tension b/w natives and settlers
settled in Jamestown, VA, where he was the first to commercially cultivate tobacco plants in North America, which turned the colony of VA into a profitable venture, married Pocahontas
John Rolfe
1609-1610, Jamestown colonists were starving, some to the point of cannibalism, and others to the point of joining Indian tribes for survival
"Starving Time"
saved the Jamestown colony by imposing harsh martial law, motto was “He who will not work shall not eat”
Captain John Smith
established by Virginia in 1619, in which any property-holding, white male could vote. Decisions made by the this group had to be approved by the Virginia Company.
House of Burgesses
the shipping route that brought the slaves to the Americas, middle leg of the triangular trade route
Middle Passage
3-legged trade route between the colonies, Europe and Africa
Triangular trade
western VA, 1670s. Many colonists began to encroach on Native American frontier land, in search of money, and eventually believed that they were not well enough protected by the colonial government and, rallying behind Nathaniel Bacon, attacked two Indian tribes and burned Jamestown to the ground. They were eventually calmed by a new treaty.
Bacon's Rebellion
taught the English what crops to plant and how to plant them. Later destroyed by English “Indian fighters” in 1644
Powhatan Confederacy
Cecilius Calvert declared this state a haven of religious tolerance for all Christians, and it became the first major Catholic enclave in the New World
The Calvert family/Maryland
when, due to Indian resentment against white settlers, members of the Yamasee Indian tribe killed 90 whites in 1715. The English upped defense and the escaped Indians ran off to FL, where they became Seminoles.
Yamasee War
this religious group was granted Pennsylvania, which had a liberal policy toward religious freedoms and civil liberties. William Penn (a Quaker and friend of King Charles II) attempted to treat Native Americans fairly, and eventually made a treaty with the Delawares to take only as much land as a man could walk in a day.
Armed conflict 1642-46 in the British Isles between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) commanded by Oliver Cromwell and supporters of the monarch Charles I (Royalists, or Cavaliers); victory of the Parliamentarians ushered in the Protectorate (also called the Commonwealth, or the Interregnum)
English Civil War
The return of a constitutional monarchy to Great Britain in 1660 under Charles II; the period between the crowning of Charles II and the Revolution of 1688.
English colonial administrator in America whose attempt to unify the New England colonies under his governorship (1686-1689) was met by revolt.
Sir Edmond Andros
may refer to the Winthrop fleet, wherein seven hundred passengers migrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 11 ships, or to the Puritan migration from England to the Northeastern US in the 1630s.
Great Migration
a united group of Iroquois tribes including originally the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca (the Five Nations); after 1722 they were joined by the Tuscarora (the Six Nations)
League of the Iroquois
led up to by third-generation Puritans who lacked the fervor of original Puritan settlers. This agreement changed the rules governing Puritan baptisms, making it so that everyone whose parents were baptized could also be baptized. Only those who were baptized could vote
Halfway Covenant
ended the Dominion of New England, overthrew James II and replaced him with William and Mary
Glorious Revolution
replaced James II of England in the Glorious Revolution
William and Mary
English began to encroach on Native American land, and the Native Americans, led by their English leader Metacomet/King Philip attacked several English settlements in revenge but ran out of supplies. When King Philip died, all alliances were broken and the English devastated the Native American tribes.
Metacomet/King Philip's War
wave of religious revival in the Puritan church, exemplified by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield
The Great Awakening
Methodist, preached a Christianity based on emotion and spirituality, similar to today’s Southern evangelism
George Whitefield
preached the severe, predeterministic doctrines of Calvinism and became famous for his graphic descriptions of Hell
Jonathan Edwards
German-born US printer and journalist, this man published the New York Weekly Journal as an indentured servant and was arrested for his attacks on the policies of the colonial governor but was acquitted because his charges were based on fact. First important victory for freedom of the press in Britain’s North American colonies.
John Peter Zenger
active Whig parliamentarian, Tory government tried to remove him from control and he was impeached for corruption, rose back to power with George I, associated with the South Sea Bubble scandal, used royal patronage for political ends and became the first British prime minister
Robert Walpole
English Quaker leader and founder of Pennsylvania, famous for the Great Case of Liberty of Conscience
William Penn
the proclamation by the British at the end of the French and Indian war that prohibited settlement by whites on Indian territory
Proclamation Line of 1763
British are finally victorious here, leading to the fall of New France
Battle of Québec
located in Pittsburgh, one of the sites of the British victories over the French during the Seven Years War
Fort Duquesne
– result of colonial expansion: English settlers move into the Ohio Valley, French try to stop them with strategic outpost placement and protect their fur trade. Washington is involved and loses badly, England declares war on France, the Native Americans ally themselves with the French, and eventually the English win in spades. Basically the English and French, with the Native Americans tagging along, fight for control of the Ohio River Valley, and the Brits win
French and Indian War/Seven Years War
First Earl of Chatham, British Whig statesman who was most famous as war minister during the Seven Years War
William Pitt
57 drunken boys who murdered 20 innocent Native Americans and were not punished because they were supported by local residents. As a result, 600 armed western frontiersmen, angered by the scant defense of the frontier from such attacks, marched on Philadelphia, and were granted a hearing
Paxton boys
meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in Albany, New York, to discuss better relations with Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French
Albany Congress
search warrants used by the British in the American colonies which authorized customhouse officers, with the assistance of a sheriff, to search any house or ship for smuggled goods. This was challenged by the colonists, and they became a major grievance in the years leading up to the American Revolution.
Writs of Assistance
involving the right of Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa to inherit the Habsburg lands. Ended with the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
King George's war (War of Austrian Succession)
second in a series of wars between Britain and France for control of North America, French raid American colonial settlements in New England, British capture Port Royal, French Acadia becomes British Nova Scotia, with the Treaty of Utrecht British acquire Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay region
Queen Anne's war (War of Spanish Succession)
English army officer, entered parliament, became interested in prison reform after being imprisoned himself, gained a charter and founded Georgia, where debtors and persecuted Protestants could live and flourish. Founded Savannah with first settlers
James Oglethorpe/Georgia
Describe the role of tobacco in saving the Virginia colony.
Introduced in the New World by the Indians through John Rolfe, tobacco helped save the Virginia colony because the crop required such vast acreage and depleted the soil (new fields were constantly required), and English expansion for tobacco farming in Virginia increased England’s power in the New World. The area soon came to be known as Chesapeake.
[Describe] the role of geography in the New England economy.
Geography: sea, fields, forests
Products: fish, tobacco, whaling, wood products, iron, horses, wood + iron → shipbuilding→ trade
Because the climate of the New World was similar to that of England, the New England colonies were unable to produce goods which England could not produce itself, and was not valuable to the mother country. As a result, the colonies were forced to trade with other nations that needed their products (Catholic Europe, colonies of the West Indies and VA). Eventually, the economy evolved, and whaling grew out of fishing, experience with wood and ironworking led to shipbuilding, which was not only an industry in itself but enabled the New England colonies to increase the quantity of imports and exports. Because of their geographical and product diversity, the New England colonies were more economically successful than those colonies further south, with only one or two dominant product.
In what way was Carolina tied to the West Indies?
Carolina was settled by Virginians and by descendants of Englishmen who had previously colonized Barbados. These descendants had witnessed slavery in Barbados, and their arrival in the New World brought the beginning of the slave era to the colonies.
In what way is the word Puritan misused?
The word Puritan is sometimes used to describe a person with strict morals, when in fact the person is not a Puritan in doctrine. Basically the word is carelessly overused.
Describe the growth of the missions in Spanish California.
When the Spanish colonized California, they built religious communities (churches) in order to educate and Christianize the Indians. These were called missions. These were built in Mexico and Southern California. San Diego, San Jose
Why did slavery begin in the English colonies? Why was it not as successful in New England?
Slavery began in the English colonies because indentured servants and others in the colonies failed to meet the labor demands, and Native Americans were too well-acquainted with the land to be kept as slaves. Enslaving Africans was justifiable to the colonists because they viewed dark skin as a sign of inferiority, and the Africans were easy to control.

Slavery flourished in the south because of its labor-intensive crops (tobacco, rice, indigo), whereas slaves in the north were used mainly as domestic servants.